April 2005

What was the year 1998 about if Mečiar has to return?
Will Slovak regions receive 10 milliard Euros?
When will you submit this report to the Parliament?
What are your competencies?
How much can Slovakia receive?
Is Slovakia prepared for this regional policy often Union?
Will this imaginary pack divided into the regions optimally?
Will fishermen defeat Minister Miklós?
Precious reservation in Central Europe
Dona has revived the ponds
They are fed in the private ponds
Cormorants eat the most fish
Our state refuses to help and compensate the entrepreneur
First it was buried, now it is needed
When was it first mentioned that the school was about to be closed?
What did you propose at that time?
What was your respond to those proposals?
Which institution is able to provide this training?
Will you require renewing your training centre?
What are the ambitions of your faculty?
What do you offer to your potential civil students?
Apart from the fact, the Army buried your school, what do you offer them?
What caused these problems?
Guaranteed One-Stop-Shop for investors
They are wandering like sheep
They focus on ecologically sufficient production
Haniska- Industrial Park
Poprad- Industrial Park
Even small localities
What is Slovak supersonic fighting aviation like?
On F-16, MiG-29 is approaching
How to avoid guided missile R-27
MiG manoeuvres better in a close fight
Master of literary art
Júlia Zelená
In the past, she already organized the following exhibitions:

What was the year 1998 about if Mečiar has to return?
When, in March 2005, Vladimír Mečiar addressed a short note to Daniel Lipšic, Minister of Justice, during the programme on Slovak Television: ´you know that if you reveal all the secret files, it will be your end´, I started thinking of a book called ´Ultimatum´ written by our former president Rudolf Schuster. Apart from many other facts, he also described opposition leaders´ consultations with the emissaries of the European Union in Hainburg after the election in 1998. In Austria, the representatives of the European Union ordered Slovakia to establish a new government coalition but without HZDS (Slovak Democratic Movement) that won the election. However, the involvement of the Hungarian coalition party (Strana maďarskej koalície) was an inevitable condition. I remember the words of Ján Čarnogurský, who promised to teach Mečiar what fear is, during the opposition demonstration in Bratislava… At that time, we did not know that Ján Čarnogurský would lose his duel with Mikuláš Dzurinda concerning the leadership in so-called anti- Mečiar´s coalition and that he would leave the leading post of KDH (Christian Democratic movement) later in order to express himself freely and join the anti-American coalition in Europe as a German knight.
I remember the political and mass medial campaign against Ivan Lexa, a former director of Slovak Intelligence, whom investigators (under the supervision of KDH) have not managed to substantiate any of accusations, or whom Slovak Judiciary (also politically controlled by KDH) has not sentenced so far. Moreover, we are watching the most interesting and cunning reality show of the purposeful coalitions and intrigues in Slovakia where ordinary people paying taxes have to sponsor every single damage caused by political directors performing power games and hiding themselves in their immunity. If this series of Ivan Lexa´s victories go on further, he will become a filthy rich man using taxes we are obliged to pay. .. What kinds of responsibility will Christian Democrats take, then? Will they confess their mistakes; will they undertake their inner reflexion?
It seems as if chess players and moralists from KDH were losing their horses and bishops. Whilst, by the year 1998, they had effectively been able to use the pathetic entrepreneurial activities of ex-president Michal Kováč´s son in order to involve the president into their political game against HZDS (due to allegedly dragged and kidnapped president´s son), American Embassy, Brussels and parallel security structures of later general Pitner, these days they have to look for a new agenda to survive on the political scene. They used to ally with anyone as they wanted to enjoy their victory- it did not matter the character or morality. Nowadays, they have to face new questions included in the contents of many opinions about the importance of the year 1998 to Slovakia. One of them says about the inconspicuous coup d´état supported by the lobbying groups from the EU and the USA so that they could manipulate Slovakia by the massive foreign privatization of the state property- officially, they just wanted to give Slovakia back its freedom and democracy depending on the will of the international capital. Another question sounds interesting, too: Must Mečiar have been set aside (as well as his ridiculed philosophy about strong and the powerful Slovak private sector and medium entrepreneurs) in order to return in the year 2006, in the coalition of those who had wanted HZDS and entrepreneurs closely related to this movement to crucify or imprison them? Why are they suddenly talking about the pragmatic cooperation in the field of national and economic interests of Slovakia while, for example, standard Slovak Economic or national politics does not exist in Slovakia? Slovakia has no national bank or the only strong and respected home investor… There is no development of the national culture what is an utter unforgiving fiasco of any ordered or overtaken reforms. And what can Slovak politicians influence when we are a member of the EU and NATO and since the year 1998, we have been building not a national but so-called civil and global society? Or shall be stop developing it and finally start defend the interests of the middle and higher classes? It is not possible yet.
One more example, the European MPs are convinced that Lisbon strategy should be the highest priority of the EU for the forthcoming five years. What is the priority of coalition and opposition MPs in the Slovak parliament? Which vision or strategy? According to the resolution of the European parliament having been voted by 500 MPs, the most urgent goals are the sustainable growth and employment aiming to strengthen of the economic performance of Europe. Are the issues of reinforcing economic performance or sustainable growth being discussed in Slovakia? Which Slovak or Hungarian minister has informed the public about the conceptual solution and forcing these issues? Do they add force to economic performance of Slovakia, increasing decline of the regions, continuing movement of young people to West, still cheap labour force, very delicate equal tax that is being criticized by powerful states of the Union, dependence of Slovakia on foreign investors?
The resolution of the European parliament claims that in order to achieve the goals of the economic and social politics and the politics in the field of the environment, it is necessary to provide sustainable macroeconomic conditions focused on growth. Just that is a presumption of an international competitiveness of Europe. MPs mention that dynamic economic development, development of the labour market, stabile currency, elimination of state debts and deficits and sustainable care for elderly people belong to the goals… I am afraid that these aims are far too demanding and difficult for Slovakia. It might look like a new sci-fi for permanent reformers of unfinished reforms. Why is Slovakia in the European Union, then?
Robert Matejovic, M.A.
Editor in Chief

Will Slovak regions receive 10 milliard Euros?
´If the government supports social policy, the issue of regional development and eliminating the gap between regions should be involved in their governing strategy. But they have to elaborate their own strategy for the regional development, ´claims Miloš Koterec, European MP.

Miloš Koterec (1962), European MP, was born in Partizánske, he graduated from three universities: J.A. Comenius University (Faculty of Law/ Institute for international relations and law approximation, international relations and diplomacy), University of Economy (Faculty of Trade, Foreign Trade) and Slovak Technical University (Faculty of Electro- Techniques and Informatics, Radio-Electronics). In the years 1993 and 2004, he worked as a career diplomat. He started his career abroad in the Regular Mission of the Slovak Republic in the United Nations in New York and he operated in Brussels as a Head of a Mission, or the Deputy of the Head of Delegation SR at NATO before he started working as an MP. He was nominated to the European Parliament by the party Smer- social democracy ( as an independent candidate). He is a member of European socialists, the second strongest fraction in the Parliament. ´My main ambition is to work in favour of the citizens of the EU on the level dominated by the governments. I feel honoured and obliged to pursue the interests of the citizens who want to see more social democracy in Europe, ´says Miloš Koterec.

As a career diplomat, you were specialized on foreign and safety politics. Within this field you focus your attention on armament control, i.e. issues of disarmament. In the European parliament you operate in the Committee for the regional development. Wasn’t it a great leap to the unknown area?
No, because the European Parliament has its important foreign-.and -political extent. The work in this institution has many attributes of diplomacy. From this point of view, my candidacy to the European Parliament moved me to another dimension in my professional orientation on foreign policy. The fact, I am a member of the Committee for the regional development is a result of a compromise that is so natural for the work in the European parliament. The Committee creates the policy that should provide less developed regions as Slovakia is with a supports straight from the funds of the EU or to get a particular help from the state. A great deal of diplomacy is required to pursue Slovak interests. A good diplomat is able to cover a wide range of issues. Diplomacy requires qualified, prepared and flexible people; moreover, the specialists for armament control and disarmament are very specific category. It is not so hard to reach the issues of regional development with a lot of flexibility, experience and of course knowledge base. On the other hand I still remained faithful to safety policy. I work in the Sub- Committee for protection and safety and I am a member of the Permanent Delegation EP for the Parliamentary assembly of NATO. I can say that if one reaches the level of a specialist for particular issues, one will not abandon it. In that way, the foreign- safety policy is for me.

You are the main correspondent of the European Parliament for the state support in the regional development. What does your agenda contain?
My task is to elaborate the initiating report of the European Parliament concerning the changes in the field of state help in order to support the regional development. Proposed by the Commission. It is the field of European policy, which limits donations from the state budget to the private sphere focused on the regional development. Commission Proposals, which might be approved at the end of this year, strictly bound the highest level of help in the countries of original fifteen and will always enable generous use of that support by the new members of the European Union. It is necessary to set the criteria so that the new system is reasonable and fair. I believe that the Commission will deal with the opinions of directly voted representatives from the Member States thoroughly and that it will issue the directive in totally objective contents from the point of view of less developed regions mostly situated in the new member states.

When will you submit this report to the Parliament?
In the Committee for ht regional development in July and in the plenary of the European parliament in September this year.

What are your competencies?
They are not defined in terns of the relations to the bodies of the EU or to the member state. But I suppose that as a representative of an institution (without which no budget policy can be approves), I will have the door open during the preparation works and that the Commission will respect recommendation stated in my report.

You say it is very important to settle the criteria from the state point of view? Which?
Criteria of a level of the economic development of any region. The state must provide the private investment with a financial support aiming to ensure territorial cohesion across the EU and to preserve fair conditions of economic competition. It will be necessary to set the limits of intensity of state help and who it will be provided with.

The enlargement of the EU resulted in slowing down the economic growth and increasing unemployment. The gap in creation of GDP doubled between 10 % of citizens living in the most prosperous parts of the Union and 10 % of people living in less prosperous regions of the Union including Slovakia. 123 million people live (what is 27 % of the overall population) in the region with GDP under 75 % per each on the European average. Four of ten citizens live in the region belonging to the old fifteen; other six citizens are the citizens of a new ten. How does the regional policy respond to these trends?
I can complete your statistics. In the new member states, about 92 per cent of citizens live in the regions with GDP lower than 75 per cent on average and moreover, 61 per cent of these citizens live under 50 per cent of GDP per a citizen. Only 14 per cent of population of the old fifteen belongs to the regions with performance lower than 75 per cent. According to the Commission (it is impossible to discuss their essentials) most of the proposed budget for the regional development for the years between 2007 and 2013 will go to the less preferred region in terms of adherence to the so-called convergent goal. It is focused on the acceleration of the economic convergation by the form of improved conditions for growth and employment using the investments into physical and human resources. It is also aimed at the innovation and knowledge-based society, at the adaptability in terms of economic and social changes, the protection of the environment and administration effectivity.
Despite the fact that some member states attempt to decrease the level of the budget and we can expect a few cross- outs in cohesive policy as well, I believe, the Council will not cause the destruction of this string that is so essential for Lisbon strategy and the EU in general.

Cohesive Fund, European regional development fund (ERDF), European Social Fund (ESF) and particular programs are the main pillars of the reformed policy of the regional development of the Union. The Commission proposed to divide 36.1 milliard Euros for the years 2007 -2013. What kinds of priorities will they be divided into?
More than 78 per cent of the funds are for the already mentioned convergence emphasising the help to ten new members. About 18 per cent is for the goal of increasing the competitiveness of entrepreneurial community in the particular regions and employment in them. The rest, less than 4 per cent of the total amount its proposed for the third priority- European area cooperation which should contribute to the cross border cooperation with a goal to strengthen the territorial cohesion as a new element of the complex political cohesion.

How much can Slovakia receive?
It will be approximately 10 milliard Euros for the period between 2007 and 2013. It is not a small amount. I have to believe that it will be use in accordance to the standards of the region and it will be placed to the field enabling sustainable development.

Is it true that the Commission proposes more strict concentration of impacts on the regional programs?
I would not call is more strict concentration of impacts. The new tools of the reformation policy should be used to simplify the procedures, to ensure proportionality, better placement of the financial help. The goal of the reform of the cohesion policy should improve the competitiveness of European economic subjects, higher economic growth and thus provide more and better work opportunities, more intensive implementation of innovation technologies and equal sustainable development. However, I am not sure this reform will help in optimalisation of help distribution to particular countries. But there are some limits set. Is it necessary to realize that the competitiveness and economic growth must be based on the local and regional level? It is the place where a long-termed base of economic power in the states of the EU as a whole.

Is Slovakia prepared for this regional policy often Union?
Our preparedness is adequate to the duration of our membership in the Union. Possibility to influence the regional policy is also defined by the importance of our position within the European structure. Despite not very pleasant experience with using the funds in the pre-integration phase. I am convinced that at this time we are ready and able to use these funds in as such extend as possible. Slovakia should manage the mechanism of sufficient number of projects and receiving the financial help.

Will this imaginary pack divided into the regions optimally?
On interstate level yes, but I am not sure about the sub-regions. It is not only the issue in Slovakia. State governments have the tendency to make very authoritative decisions about the funds for its regions. There are particular attempts to deepen the regional governments´ involvement in the issues of decision making processes while segregating the help for the regional development. Regionalism is increasing. Not only firmly set criteria but also thorough democracy and transparency will participate in an equal and fair division of the funds.

Danuta Hubnerová, Polish Commissar wants to pursue the decentralisation of the regional policy of the EU which would give more independence to the national and regional governments. Do you support this idea?
Yes. But there must be a particular proportional responsibility of the governments against their regions. The previous philosophy reinforced the European integration and did not provide the regions and sub-regions with their power to make decisions in the field of division and distribution of the money for the regions. If the decentralisation stops on the state level, it would be more suitable to set a frame of funds division procedure within each country, or region.

Slovak citizens perceive the regional policy only through the structural funds of the EU. There are hardly any funds segregated for the regional development in Slovakia. If the state leaves all financing of the regional policy on the European funds or on malnourished regional self-government?
It is good that the public is aware of the regions and regional politics by the European Union. The solution of the policy for the regional development can rely only on the communitarian level. Although the principle of the regional development is so-called ´ patent ´ of the European Union, we cannot rely on the funds from the Union. It is necessary to analyze how the government divides the cost from the state budget to the particular regions. Comparing the numbers, they say for example that 33 per cent of the budget of the EU goes to the regions. The state participates very little in those projects. If the government supports social policy, the issue of regional development and eliminating the gap between regions should be involved in their governing strategy. But they have to elaborate their own strategy for the regional development. For example, to allow state power to big private investments is very interesting from the points of view of the strategy and growth, there arises a question whether it is systematically possible to support small and medium entrepreneurs in the touched regions what is undoubtedly the pillar of proportional and sustainable development of the society? What would it look like from strategically point of view when the big investors will move?

Many Slovak translators of the projects accuse Slovak Central Bodies of creating the artificial administration obstacles at the last second- what is absolutely unfair because they do not have time respond and eliminate any faults. This practice will stop many applicants. What would help in order to ask citizens, especially entrepreneurs, to trust their Commission again as they approve many project?
The answer is surprisingly very simple. It is clearness and transparency. But transparency is not a form of word obligation and declarations, but transparency must be put into practice. There are many ways how to ensure it. One of them is to put the information o the Internet. There must not be any details like production or trade secret. All the projects, which people applied for to finance from the Europe funds, should be published on the web sites of the appropriate state bodies- ministries and they should include all the results and conclusions of the tender commissions. It is obvious that people will doubt about the chosen projects. It can be characterized as a professional approach of the government working very hard to please our citizens.

Will fishermen defeat Minister Miklós?
Authorities keep refusing the help offered by a businessman and do not car for National natural reservation in Senné. Birds only hunt in private ponds because the state does not provide any fish for its reservation, an important ornithological nest in Central Europe. It does not even compensate partially businessman’s loss. The law says they are not allowed to flush or shoot birds.

László Miklós (SMK), Minister of environment had better blamed himself. After a long unsuccessful negotiations about Slovak quota of carbon dioxide emissions that betrayed Slovak industry (see Dimenzie no. 3/2005), Ministry of Environment is facing another trial with the company Dona,s.r.o. Veľké Revištia that will be solved on the supreme court of the Slovak republic. The reason for instigating prosecution is the unwillingness to recognize and partially sponsor or pay for damages on the prosecutor and his fish system in Iňačovce near Michalovce. It was caused by the birds nesting nearby in 2002- in the State natural reservation of Senné- ponds, mainly a cormorant great.

The ponds in Iňačovce and Senné used to be a pride of Zemplín and Slovakia. They were built during socialism in the 1970s in order to catch deluging spring water. Thanks to its area, it became the largest Slovak pond system. Its fish supply presented 70 per cent of the home market. Apart from that, it became one of the most important localities of birds and their nests in Central Europe. The state declared the area a protected line in the fourth degree of protection of the National natural reservation in 1974. Its main purpose was to preserve very precious biocenosis and water birds for scientific and research, cultural and educational purposes.
Protecting line covers 213 hectares including 13 ponds of the private pond system of Iňačovce. The ponds were registered in the list of Ramsar localities in 1900. The variety of species of birds stimulated the registration of this locality among Important Bird Areas (IBA).

Precious reservation in Central Europe
273 kinds of birds were recorded in the area, six of them are endangered worldwide and 53 species threatened by becoming extinct in Europe. This locality is the most important nesting area in the Slovak republic for the kinds as a Bittern, a Little Egret, a Larus Cachinnans and a Cormorant. There is the significant number of individuals of various species of water birds indicates the importance of the bogs (for instance a Cormorant, a Purple Heron, a Great White Heron, a Little Egret, a Beared Tit, a Short-Earet Owl, a Marsh Harrier) Apart from a few tens of couples of a wild duck, there is a numerous population of a Crested Brebe and a Tuftet Duck. Bird islands are inhabited by a colony of a Night Heron, a Common Heron, a Little Egret and plenty of water plants are the home of a Whiskered Tern and a Water Rail. During the spring and summer movement in the area, there are many Grebes, Herons, Duck and Geese resting there together with Short- eared owls. The private ponds with an open water level without plants provide the shelter for the great number of grebes, cormorants, ducks, seagulls and terns. Water plants cover the ponds are very favourite for nesting with a Red-necked Grebe, a Swan, a Coot or never tired a Black Tern and a Whiskered Tern.

Dona has revived the ponds
The state, i.e. East Slovak Fish enterprise, š.p. (š.p. - štátny podnik- the state enterprise), Michalovce, had look after the ponds by the year 2000. When it defunct, it left the ponds in alarming conditions. ´ One third of ponds was dry, sixty per cent of the area was overgrown by cane and rushes and …wood plants. There were no fish for clearance in the existing ponds; ´ remembers Ladislav Vaľo, the representative of Dona, s.r.o. - a company based in Veľké Revištia. He privatized the former state enterprise in October 2000 in order to revive them again. His company covers 6.5 hectares of the farming land, grows cattle and pigs. It grows fish for both stocking and sale in the ponds in Iňačovce. The pond system covers the area of 485 hectares and consists of 28 ponds. The main kinds of fish breeding in the ponds are carps, sheatfish, pikes, etc. ´ There are some ponds available for fishing and angling. There are fish weighing 2.5 kilograms stocked for these purposes, but you can catch a carp or pike having 10 or 20 kilograms or a 30-kilogram sheatfish, ´claims Martin Vaľo, Head of the centre and adds: ´We would like to grow 200 tons of carp fish this year. There have never been so many fish bred in history. WE are one of the greatest producers of lowlands fish in Slovakia. After a three-year breeding we sell fish to the Slovak fishing union. We have one of the greatest incubators in Slovakia.´

They are fed in the private ponds
Economic results of Dona, s.r.o. company, which owns embankments, outlets and inlets for the joining canals of the ponds, are endangered by 50 species of birds eating fish. Their nests are in the nearby reserve that is formally administered by an old lack-of-finance state enterprise of Povodie Bodrogu a Hornádu (River Basin of the Bodrog and the Hornad rives) that are administered by Štátny vodohospodársky podnik (State Water Enterprise) in Banská Bystrica. ´ It is unbelievable, but this state reserve does not have a supervisor, it went absolutely dry in 2003. Non-governmental organizations were looking after that then. It should provide birds with food and water. Now it is fulfilled with water, but there are no fish. So their birds are fed in our ponds, ´says Martin Vaľo.
As he told us, the environmentalists (CHKO Latorica belongs to Ministry of Environment) were offered that they would supply them economically not significant fish at their own expanse just to give the birds their natural food in the pond of Senné. ´Thus we want to eliminate our loss. Environmentalists refuse our help saying that they have been working on the protection of the reserve for three years... But they still do not know what to do with it. Nor Ministry of Environment nor they are aware that they endanger nesting of very precious species of birds and that they number is decreasing every year.´

Cormorants eat the most fish
Damages caused by the birds have been calculated up to 85 tons of fish annually. It means approximately 18 million Crowns for Dona, s.r.o. The greatest damages are caused by cormorants, which started nesting in the area at the beginning of the 1990s. ´ They eat fish for more than a million crowns every year. 300 cormorants nest there from March to September. An adult individual eats between a half and one kilogram of small thoroughbred fish, for instance small carps having the size of 10 centimetres. Apart from many complaints and negotiations, Ministry of Environment ignores this problem. Our company has not received a single crown for all damages caused by these birds that are protected in Slovakia. In other states, they are not protected and they can be shot. Our laws forbid it, ´Martin Vaľo continues. According to him cormorants are over bred kind and they do not have a natural predator to liquidate them. Due to this state protection, many other species are endangered. Their excrements destroy the green of the countryside.
´ Bird protectors also attempted to achieve the symbiosis between fish breeders and cormorants. They precede their over breeding by piercing their eggs in the nests but they not successful to keep the acceptable level of the population. Cormorants are shy and could leave the reserve for good. Due to their shyness they settled by Senné where they are not disturbed and they can make nests on the island in the reserve in Senné and they eat our fish. ´

Our state refuses to help and compensate the entrepreneur
The lack of interests of state authorities in solving this issue led Dona, s.r.o. to instigate prosecution against Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic who did not recognize the application for compensation although it had been written according to our legislation and based on an expert opinion. In 2002, when Minister Miklós visited the ponds, the firm managed to convince the authorities and environmentalists to participate in stocking fish and their catching. They signed the minutes of the meeting and documents concerning fish stocking based on which the damage was counted by a court expert. ´We do not require the compensation in its full amount. We just insist on compensation of 5 million Crowns for the damages caused by cormorants. We intent to apply our right for annual donations in the form of compensation as it used to be given to the state enterprise. This kind of compensation is common in many other countries of the European Union, ´Martin Vaľo explains.
In spite of the prosecution, the representatives of Dona, s.r.o. suggested their solution of the problem. Ministry of Environment was given the last offer to stock the ponds in the reserve. ´We proposed to agree on the term and conditions of renting, managing and protecting the reserve as our state does not have enough money. Destroyed embankment system is a great problem. It caused damages on water and land rodents after the ponds had dried out. The embankment system requires a lot of investments for repair works. Although we submitted our proposal in writing, we have not received an answer so far. We still believe that the common sense will win at Ministry of Environment, ´ Martin Vaľo adds. Dona, s.r.o. has invested ten million Crowns for four years in order to renew and protect the ponds in Iňačovce. The most urgent is mending of the embankment system and get rid of unwanted plants. We would like to reconstruct stocks and catching areas. ´Every private company runs its business to make money, not loss. Damages caused by birds are compensated by our income from food processing. If we did not have this production, we would have bankrupted a long time ago,´ claims Martin Vaľo.

First it was buried, now it is needed
General Bill Reno - a member of the American Consulting Team,, who, based on our information, had never worked in Air Force, visited Military Air Force Academy and he made a complete audit in our school in two days, including personnel, material, studying and training area,´ František Olejník, a former rector remembers about the beginning of the liquidation of the academy. Nowadays, he is authorized dean at Faculty of Aviation at Technical University.

It is traditionalized that there used to be two school having the highest credit in the former Czechoslovakia- Carl’s University in Prague and Air Force Academy SNP in Košice. Whilst the first one survived the transformation of Czech higher education, the one in Košice went through a very difficult and tough period. It has changed its name twice (First it was Military University of Air Force of gen. Milan Rastislav Štefánik) so that its development came across many obstacles full of undignified conceptual conflicts within the reforms of Military Force of the Slovak Republic and in military education. As the politicians were changing their posts of Minister of Defence and General Secretaries, the opinions about its further existence were changing at the same time. Although it had to be closed down, finally it was transformed into the civil Aviation Faculty at Technical University (TU) in Košice. Paradoxically, it has brought up hundreds of top experts and pilots just for the Army, or for the Aviation in the Slovak Republic.

We are the ninth faculty of TU, into which we were incorporated, on February 1, 2005. We have eight departments providing education in seven civil and three military studying programmes. There are six professors, twelve readers and forty-five assistants working in these departments. More than 500 students study there in both regular and external engineering forms, 37 PhD students and more than 200 students in various forms of courses of specialized trainings, ´ says doc. RNDr. František Olejník, PhD., authorized dean at the Faculty of Aviation at Technical University in Košice. He graduated from the Faculty of Sciences UPJŚ in Košice and he is a specialist for combinatory mathematics and for the management of air transport. He was a rector of the former Air Force Academy for eight years; he was the pro-rector for scientific activities for eight years as well. ´I would like all friends of aviation; all who do care for the new faculty to give it their support, to wish it a fast development and very quick implementation in the civil and air force transport. ´

Mr. Olejník, I do not intent to doubt the high standard of the former air force school that educated specialists and pilots mostly for Warsaw Treaty, for Arab or African countries.. However, has just this earned you respect and recognition?
By the high level of professionalism. Her graduates gave school its reputation- they are members of Czechoslovak and later Slovak Aviation, pilots of military and civil aircrafts, helicopters, navigator, and specialist for ground service, military managers. For example, the school has many famous graduates such as Vladimír Remek, the first Czechoslovak astronaut, nowadays, the member of the European Parliament and Ivan Hůlka who has won the prize of ´The Superkings´ for the best fly of the jet aircraft at IAT Fairford (England) twice. Air Force School became famous for its White Albatrosses (Biele albatrosy)- a famous acrobatic team that has done a lot of work as they made Slovakia famous abroad and due to financial problems they were forced to end their activities.
Our former University used to have from 1000 to 1200 students. It also had foreign students from more than 15 countries. Many the most qualified experts taught at our school, there was material and technical base available for students, they had specialist for PE. We still have one of the best language departments for teaching ´aviation English´.

It is said that you rescued the school from its total close down. Is it true?
Partially. Because there were many people participating in the rescue of our school. I was honoured to work with them in a team.

When was it first mentioned that the school was about to be closed?
In 1995, when Jozef Sitek was Minister of Defence (SNS- the Slovak national Party). I was the rector of the school at that time. Some officials at Ministry of Defence pursued the proposal to close our school down or change it to the Faculty at the Military Academy in Liptovský Mikuláš. We were able to eliminate those proposals.

How?
By using lots of reasonable arguments, economic and personal analysis and, of course, by private lobbying.

Mr. Grega, your successor on the post of the rector claimed in March 2002 that there could be Central European Training Centre for subsonic aircrafts within the NATO. Why has this idea been realized?
It was our idea and did not get any support by Slovak Military Force. It had already been going through the process of transformation connected with the integration of Slovakia to NATO. Transformations steps are also realized in the field of education and training. The whole concept of transformation was being prepared in cooperation with Ministry of Defence and American Consulting team ´Cubic´ that supported the idea that two Military Universities are far too many for Slovak Military Force. One of the American consulting team, General Bill Reno, who, based on our information, had never worked in air force, visited Military Air force Academy and he made a complete audit in our school in two days, including personnel, material, studying and training area. Based on the audit he elaborated the thorough analysis and suggested to realize the project of establishment of National Academy of Military Force in Liptovský Mikuláš. It should have consisted of two parts: Undergraduate- Academy of National Military Force led by the rector- the commander and the Centre of career development where all the training for Military Force should be realized. We did not agree with this proposal and claimed that this project is not good and will have negative consequences in personnel fulfilment of Air Force in the Slovak Republic. Current situation in supplementing the human resources have proved our statement.

What did you propose at that time?
We proposed Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Education a few suggestions as how to use capacities of our school, however, the political and unprofessional decision was made in 2003- our school would disappear from the map of military schools. First was saying about the establishment of the Military Air Force Faculty under Liptovský Mikuláš, the second one was about creation of the civil Slovak aviation university and the third was about foundation of the Faculty of Aviation at Technical University in Košice.

What was your respond to those proposals?
The first possibility did not pass due to the refusal of Ministry of Defence that followed the results of already mentioned American Consulting Team. The same proposal appeared in the conceptual material called ´Model 2010´ including the clause about eradication of our academy. The second variety did not pass because of the refusing statement of Ministry of Education that is reinforcing the unifying trend and not the establishment of new public schools. The third option of uniting with Technical University was accepted by both ministries. Juraj Sinay, a rector of Technical University and Zdenko Trebuľa, Mayor of Košice get involved in this process. First we had to transform the school to the Aeronautic Institute TU since September 2004 as the whole legislative process had not been finished by then. The Faculty of Aviation was established by the resolution issued by Academic Senate at TU on 1 February 2005.

How are American conceptual proposals of the reform of military education developing?
Instead of two subjects, two subjects were created- the Academy of Military Force of General M. R. Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš. It specializes on the development of bachelor leadership study programmes and the National Academy of Defence of Marshal Andrej Hadik- it should provide complex training and the courses for pilot from Air Force SR.

You say that it should... Who provides the practical training of military and civil pilot these days?
Still our faculty. Due to lack of personnel, specialized and material background, the current conditions in the National Academy of Defence are not suitable for it yet. It is not enough to be professionally prepared to be a good teacher or an instructor. However, they need to be having methodical and human approach towards teaching. An excellent teacher or instructor has been profiled for many years.

Which institution is able to provide this training?
Our Faculty of Aviation. It is formed form the Military Academy of Air Force. All of our key workers and specialists are civil employees now. Slovak Air Force is offered accredited military bachelor programmes- Military Air Force management, a military pilot and Aviation technical and operation provision. WE apply for all the courses that are necessary from the point of view of the civil and military aviation, aviation technology and technical personnel. Both these licences are in accordance with the Joint European Joint Requirements (JAR).

Your faculty does not have a typical aviation training centre. How do you want to guarantee complex pilot training?
We are able to provide complete theoretical preparation and training on trainers. The practical aviation training will be realized in accordance with agreements we have signed with the operators of aviation techniques- helicopter training with the firm Heli Company, s.r.o. and the training on propeller aircrafts in cooperation with the Slovak National Aero Club in Košice. From rational and objective point of view, we are the best in Slovakia. In March 2005, an agreement was signed between Technical University in Košice and Czech Airlines. Moreover, it looks promising that our graduates would extend their realization in that company. Apart from that, we prepare the agreement with the company BAE systems. It is our long-termed partner and with many other companies.

Will you require renewing your training centre?
It is not possible to renew the training centre as it used to be during the period of existence of Academy of Military aviation... From perspective point of view, we would like to create our own training centre but it depends on our partners´ willingness.

What are the ambitions of your faculty?
Its basic aim is to participate in the fulfilment of TU mission, mainly in the field of aviation and astronautics. We want to provide, organize and ensure the undergraduate and lifelong education and to realize creative scientific research in the area of aviation engineering, aviation electro technologies, construction, repairs and operation of aviation technology, management of air transport. We would like to join and strengthen scientific and technological activities of Technical University. The research conditions are improving, the state wants to invest more in this field as well. Of course we will not be waiting for the state funds; we will try to succeed in many civil grants. At the moment, there is no money for the research in our budget, but we apply for some funds from the grants. Our employees had to shift their interests from military to civil research. Personally, I praised all the pedagogues from the faculty who showed an enormous effort to accept all the changes in such short time. I insist on the fact that student should be touch by these changes in minimal way and I wish them to see this change only on their diploma.

What do you offer to your potential civil students?
We will start a new school year 2005/2006 with an offer of seven new civil bachelor programmes. The most attractive one is focused on acquiring suitable knowledge to work as professional pilots. The main goal of this study is to provide students with professional education so that they could do practical aviation training at any aviation school at inevitable professional abilities. It will enable to work as a second pilot on helicopters in trade shipping and obtain the qualification of a trade pilot with a note of approval to fly according to devices. We can accept 260 student to the first year (regular study) and 140 to the external study. By the end of August, we would like to receive an accreditation for other programmes, mainly of the second and third degree.

Apart from the fact, the Army buried your school, what do you offer them?
I do not think the Army buried our school. Members of Air Force SR on each level did really understand the importance of such an institute as Air Force Academy used to be. Nowadays, after bilateral discussions, they require to use the capacity of the Faculty of Aviation in a bigger extend and involved them in the preparation of their stuff. We have applied for the courses for helicopter pilots, an 18-moth course for pilots that should be provided by NAO. Apart from that, we have two years of military students. We have already started with re-training the students in the fifth year, originally trained for helicopters. They are being trained to become transport pilots. However, there is an issue of financing these activities from the side of Military Force. For instance, since September 2004, we had run into debts (We received money on 17 December 2004). March 2005 has passed and there are still problems wit financing the study of military undergraduates. Our situation is critical. We have money for salaries only until July.

What caused these problems?
While signing the delimitating protocol concerning liabilities of Military Force against the school, an amendment was inserted there. It stated that Military Force will pay debts for their students according to the methodology of Ministry of Education. This methodology divided the funds from the budget based on the coefficients of personal and economic demands that do not take particular character of military study into account. For example, technical study programmes count on one teacher and 0.33 technical- and- economic employee (THP) for 10 students. In case of military students the coefficient is much different, there are two teacher and two THPs for one student and in particular specializations, there are two students for one teacher and THP. WE need approximately 12.5 million crowns for salaries (from Military Force) and other donations for ordinary costs. In case the process of delimitation of sufficient sources does not start, we will have to solve this situation in a very untraditional way- some employees will be made redundant and find the military students different forms to complete their studies.


Guaranteed One-Stop-Shop for investors
RoTTeL, s.r.o. Company offers them their private industrial park in Haniska near Prešov, a few potential industrial parks and localities in East and Central Slovakia. The only condition is- ecologically suitable production built on ´a green meadow´. Although the development company RoTTeL, s.r.o. has been operating in Prešov for a year, it has been trying to earn its reputation by pursuing their very attractive service called One-Stop-Shop. Small and medium investors are offered by the turn-key investments- from choosing a locality for their investment plans and the elaboration of the complete project documentation of the site, through its realization up to the operation start, area administration and possibly the personnel manufacture equipment. It is also a professional consultant of cities and villages having decided to erect an industrial park.

They are wandering like sheep
´ The establishment of our company is the respond to an empty space in the field of project services, complex supplies of technologies and sites. There are not many firms, especially in Eastern Slovakia, which would prepare a complex offer and services, ´ says Stanislav Čorej, C.E.O. of RoTTeLL, s.r.o. Small and medium foreign investors who come to Slovakia often wander the street like sheep. They go from one office to another one, visit the self-governing authorities, require information and feel lost in the mixture of many administrative requirements. They are bothered by firms offering only partial services. At last, they are fed up with it and they leave Slovakia; ´ adds S. Čorej who had worked on different posts in the field of industry, in the building of technological units and marketing. Nowadays, he is a chairman of the board of directors of Slovak Regional Trade and Industrial Chamber in Prešov. In 2003, he gathered a team of specialists in the field of projection, area and document preparation of the investment intentions, marketing, legal and personnel and many other activities so that it was able to respond to an increasing demand of small and medium investors. ´It is being confirmed that not only the state but particularly private sector with thoroughly elaborated logistic of products and services play their very important role in creation of conditions for their entrance and establishment of new industrial localities. It is much cheaper, more transparent and effective in comparison with state authorities and agencies that predominantly deal with big investors and large industrial parks, ´Stanislav Čorej continues.

They focus on ecologically sufficient production
RoTTeL Company focuses on the investors who intend to move their operation or plan to erect it on ´a green meadow´. ´ It is our philosophy of business. We are not specialized on trading. We cooperate with investors pursuing ecologically sufficient production in the field of engineering, wood-processing, electro-technical and food industries. ´
Those investors are offered by guaranteed, fast, professional and sophisticated services in the preparation, realization and post-realization phases of the project. The investor has two possibilities: to choose either a turn-key project or to order services and choose suppliers oneself. In the second case, RoTTeL, s.r.o. has a function of a coordinator and a supervisor. ´ Investors requiring consulting do not have any experience with either construction or Slovak building law. Assistance in legal, personnel and bookkeeping agenda, the issues of work safety and hygiene are involved in the pack of our services. We also offer administration and object protection, marketing and shipping, ´S. Čorej claims and adds: ´ We also offer the solution of machines movement and their assembly unless it is a specialized activity. ´

Haniska- Industrial Park
Nowadays, RoTTeL Company is offering one private and a few city industrial parks in East and Central Slovakia. There are site areas suitable for erection of objects focused on mechanical engineering and electro-technology available in the private industrial park of Prešov covering the area of twenty hectares. It is situated near the highway towards Košice. ´ The philosophy of our park is to create all the conditions suitable for the investor who wants to have the production placed near the city providing qualified labour force, city transport, close to the motorways, with solved infrastructure and an opportunity to move ahead in the construction. ´

Poprad- Industrial Park
The industrial park of Poprad belongs to the most elaborated industrial parks, which is owned by the city of Poprad. It covers the area of 8,5 hectares and it is placed near Whirpool Company. It is also for the investors in the field of mechanical engineering and electro-technical industries. RoTTeL has prepared complete project documentation for this park; it has helped with ensuring financed from the funds of the European Union and with a tender for supplier for the construction of engineering network. It can employ from 500 to 1000 people. Other elaborated parks are in Spišský Hrhov (because of its position, it is suitable for the wood-processing industry), Prievidza (various types of production), Poltár (with tradition of glass industry and a lot of natural sources) and Vranov nad Topľou (processing industry). Thousands of people will manage to find a job there. The lots are sorted out and they belong to the properties of the particular city. ´ The issue of an engineering network still remains. It is possible either to use state help or to wait for stronger investors. Self-governments do not have free sources to support that kind of activities. However, they show unlimited effort to gain them, ´ Stanislav Čorej emphasises. ´ It is the matter of time to solve this issue. Other things are in order. ´

Even small localities
Why does RoTTeL, s.r.o. orientate on small and medium investors?´They are the moving power of economy in Western Europe and we wish it was so in Slovakia as well. Moreover, we have found out that not all the investors want to undertake in a typical industrial park. Groups of small and medium investors feel limited there. They need freedom. They rather establish their business on´ a green meadow´, they do not need large prepared localities. One or two hectares are enough for them. If they decide to give it a go, they inquire a very fast realization of their investment intention´, Stanislav Čorej explains. RoTTeL has prepared small localities for that kind of investors in Prešov, Lipany, Sabinov and other towns, mainly in the east of Slovakia, which are focused on any, ecologically free production.
´I do not like talking about it, but investors are very careful with their wage costs within Slovakia. They are in favour of East Slovakia as there are salaries lower even by 50 per cent being compared to West Slovakia. However, it is not a matter we should be proud of, it is real life we have to count on. Investors know that our economy is about decreasing unemployment rate and that it is an aim which we´d like to join our business with, ´Stanislav Čorej claims.

What is Slovak supersonic fighting aviation like?
Slovak MiGs have a little hope to operate successfully in the complex air encounters of the whole formations using all dimensions o fair war including information- and –electronic Technologies.

A sharp nose appeared among the clouds in the sky with brightly sun shinning. Two- seater ´fighting falcon-16B was zooming up very fast until it has reached the flying level of FL150 in the watch area and started to turn left. Sitting in a seat being comfortably bent backwards in the rear cockpit, I was slowly getting used to small joystick, very sensitive to flying control and to the data on HUP. When I was holding that little ´piece of a stick´ in my hand and was trying to fly the as I was used to, F-16 jumped very nervously and made waves. As soon as I started respecting the fact that F-16 is controlled by a computer, I relieved the joystick and using only gentle touches I showed it where I wanted to fly. The engine calmed down and I sat in the air as if I had been riveted to the spot.

Joss, front pilot, the first lieutenant of Dutch Royal Air Force and the instructor of fight training, switched over the board radar to the passive search mode. Meanwhile, a very sensible receptor monitors the wide spectrum of electro-magnetic radiation evaluates its results and displays it on RWR- warning display. WE could hear the ground controller in our headphones: ´ 425, clearance CAP, FL150 to 200. ´´Roger 425, ´ the pilot mumbled with his Dutch English and the ground controller dropped a little remark: ´Keep awake, Dutch!´ what meant that Joss is responsible for the limited space and has to keep between 4500 and 6000 metres and that something is about to happen.

On F-16, MiG-29 is approaching
´Look at two o’clock, a bandit is approaching, ´ Joss’s voice announced in the intercom. I scanned the space in front of me and on my right, but although I had an excellent view I could not see more than dropped stratocumuli through the tops of which we were flying over. Them I realized that my eyes are quite old-fashioned in the era of electronic devices and I rather looked on the display RWR. Obviously, there was a target in a distance of approximately 40 kilometres, so invisible for any the most bright eagle eye. But not for the radar AN/ APG 66 that based on its features identified it as MiG-29. ˇYeah, show your teeth…´ mumbled Joss to himself and announced: ´425, one MiG-29, bull’s eye 060, 35, commence. ´The ground answered laconically: ´ 425, target’s yours, area clear, combat approved´. Joss took the control over F-16 and navigated our falcon to the straight direction towards MiG-29. He accelerated the speed up to 500 … The pilot of MiG-29 was not asleep either. Apparently, he was well informed by his ground navigator and his own radar and sped up heading straight towards us.

How to avoid guided missile R-27
We were approaching to each other on speed of 1800 kilometres per hour and it would take us more than minute to overcome that distance. In the distance of 30 kilometres RWR started flashing and announced. ˇR27 AAM WNG, ´ what meant that the radar of MiG-29 turned to the mode for launching guided missile of medium – ranged R-27. ´Prepare y´self, colonel, ´ Joss warned me. Immediately, RWR started flashing again, I heard a siren and R-27 had been fired. Joss did not hesitate and by a very sharp movement he moved the joystick to the right. He lurched Falcon on his ´right ear´. He turn on the additional combustion so that we ere able to keep our speed in very demanding manoeuvres and he pulled the control lever as much as possible. Falcon started a very sharp curve with an impact force of 7 g- that’s 7 times the force of gravity. Condensation whirls appearing above the right wing, so typical for F-16; they reached the level of the rear cockpit and partially covered the view to the sides. This impact force pressed me into the seat and many years of training kept me alive, my sight narrowed, I could hardly breathe, but my anti-g trousers, seat moved backwards and many years of training kept me conscious. In a few seconds we turned by 180°, it was a kind of turn back, then Joss stow the plane and we flew away far from the rackets at the maximum speed. After approximately 30 seconds we did another manoeuvre to the left, turn only by 90°. He had been flying for thirty seconds and sharply turns back. Our flight path had a shape of a letter L and we reached the down part of an imaginative arm approximately 8 kilometres from the original axis of approaching, with the nose pointed at it. ´Now is our turn, buddy, ´Joss commented the situation and still in passive mode, according to RWR, we se out straight to the estimated upper point of the letter L.

MiG manoeuvres better in a close fight
The pilot of MiG-29 has already noticed that we escaped the first volley. He turned against us so that he could attack us. He had to watch us on the radar to see if his R-27 ended its mortal combat. Our radar sighted, made an evaluation and offered that it would be the best to launch the missiles AIM-120 AMRAAM (Air- Air). Joss immediately did it. He diverted the convergent direction by right-left slalom so we did not occur to the zone in which the pilot of MiG-29, with a bit of skills, could launch the missile before his total destruction and reach a tie at least. We did not have to care for launched missiles. They were continuing independently and inevitably in accordance with a program they had been given into their computers just before launching. Our S-manoeuvre was successful; RWR showed us that we are quickly approaching in the acute angle. It was the place that we were almost invisible to MiG. However, MiG escaped and was approaching towards us. If the radar had a blank angle, the pilot definitely did not. He saw us first. His motors were followed by smoke as he accelerated, MiG´s impact force was at least 7- 8g. Suddenly he flashed in a distance of a kilometre on the left side and a typical ´dogs´ duel´ could start. We turned doing some curves. The impact force took my breath away, my neck hurt but Joss as well as MiG´s pilot did not let a half g and neither of them wanted to give up. What was even worse, MiG was slowly but surely getting behind us. It manoeuvred better when flying closer. Nothing could help. Moreover, we did not have enough fuel. Joss tried to escape by moving straight up, he used a convergent curve to use gravity and turned by the angle over the ´shoulder a bit faster.



Master of literary arts
´Slovak people had to deal with various nations in their history, but they have also experienced that the worst troubles they had to face were cause by the Slovak, ´ thinks Ľubomír Feldek.

He belongs to the most famous Slovaks in the Czech Republic; he has had a Czech citizenship for seven years. He is not only one of the well-known Slovak writers but also one of the most translated authors. His works vary. From poetry and prose, through feuilletons and essays, theatre plays, film scripts to the translations of theatre plays. Fairy tales and stories for children have always remained his dominant genre. He is often characterized as a rebel or provocateur. Ľubimír Feldek (1936) - a poet, novelist, dramatist, literary theorist, publicist and a fair- tale teller.




Júlia Zelená
She was born in Košice in 1963. She has been living and working there since then. In 1963, she graduated from Technical University in Košice and she has been dealing with clothes and fine art since 1993. Her works include clothes design and painting on silk. Her hand-painted silk is transformed into clothes, accessories and wall textiles.

In the past, she already organized the following exhibitions:
1993 - Dielo, Košice
1994 - East Slovak Gallery- Salon Rembrandt, Košice
1999 - Kopa Gallery, Košice
2004 - East Slovak Gallery, Košice
She is preparing:
2005 - Museum of Janko Kráľ- Synagogue, Liptovský Mikuláš
 

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