March 2004

Are investors or our politicians stupid?
The influence of the national political parties will grow
This theme is not often discussed in Slovakia…
Who is Ján Slota?
Project that cost four milliards
Modernization of the airport
The periodical line is a priority
Industrial park
Her songs sadden and gladden
The spirit of Hatshepsut, the Queen of Egypt
Wise ruler
Only the memorial temple reminds her
Her step son - conqueror
A war through the tempting white lies
Cases of Kelly and Tiger.
Šariš reinforces its position
Welcome in a Mesozoic!
Quo vadis Europe?
Six from Sixtieth Festival
Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966)

Are investors or our politicians stupid?
When the Slovak Hungarians and their party Hungarian Coalition became a component of governmental coalition for the first time (after election in 1998), it was generally expected, that they will be a drafter in region politics in Slovakia development. It did not happen so and everything suggests that this party has lost its strength in this area. Their vivacious leader Bela Bugar said in an interview for Dimenzie (see .6/2002) before the election of 2002 that his party didn't expect that it will last 2 years while the first government of M.Dzurinda creates a sector of a region development (probably it was very hard work) on the ministry for region development ... . "We have lost a lot of time. It lasted another half-year to create region centres. It is indeed a nice base for coming government, which will have furthermore to build a region development. This result effected that we weren't able to show wherein we are good."
Since that another two years have gone and precipice between the economic development of the individual regions in Slovakia and Bratislava have been still deepening. These "scissors", which are permanently criticized also by Brussels, are significant also in south Slovakia, where the Hungarian minority lives. After election 2002, the position and effect SMK have reinforced. Apart from the regional development, its deputies have dominated the departments of an environment, agriculture and, for Slovakia very important, input of a financial help from EU.
We will return to one declaration of B.Bugár: "We missed a law about industrial parks for a long time. It was accepted very late. If we realise, that it lasts one year, while they will accept your project, then you are once again waiting one year for a resolution, so it lasts a long time. We have the results and also the finances but those will come to Rimavská Sobota or Rožava after the election (2002)."
Now we can give logical questions. If SMK is politically and expertly responsible as a minimum for a region development in Slovakia for the fifth year, why do not we know the concrete results of its, or governmental, conception? Does it exist? In addition, if it exists why they do not talk about it on the press conferences and various political discussions? When will SMK present a specification of ratified projects financed from state budget and before-entrance funds, which were deserved by this political party and its deputies? What have been obstructing for example to P.Csaky, vice-chairman of the Government of SR for the european integration, to tell us finally, in what and how has he helped to inhabitants of our country? It seems that his managerial abilities were overcharged also by Americans in U.S.Steel Košice, who have finally appeared in its true colour and have confessed that an agreement between SR and EU in a question of over-production of steel and compensation for the investment motives is nearly on a deadlock... If Slovakia lose another sources from structural funds only for the fact that the region development, the environment and agriculture is evolved very slowly, will the deputies and constitutional agents return their salaries to the state budget?
About this, how the government (or SMK) want to build the regional politics in Slovakia, says also new statements of a Minister of Economy Pavol Rusko (ANO), which were heard in Spišská Nová Ves: "I'm very sorry, that it is so hard to get the investors here (understand to the east of Slovakia). Everybody is asking, where finishes the highway. Who will come here if they can stay in Nitra? Are they stupid? Are they dotty? There is a life around the highway. If there is no highway, there's an outland and people buy weekend houses there."
According to his words people from east of Slovakia are going to worry 5-6 years more. It's a pity that minister didn't rather speak about the reason why the National Developing Program, in which is said about a compensation of a balance between regions, hasn't been realized, and about investor which he will seek to achieve if Hyundai decides to invest in Poland. The companies Embraco and Whirpool, which have undertook on Spiš and under the High Tatras already for a few years, do not miss the highway at all for they could gradually realize their business intents. If our state budget has enough money for strategically and economically moot partnership with the USA in Irak and Afghanistan, why it doesn't also have enough money for supporting of a highway construction in east-west tendency?
Robert Matejovic
Editor in Chief

The influence of the national political parties will grow
Only pragmatics, specialists and technocrats can get this state out of this deep crisis that means people having experience after many years of practice in factories, on farms, in the firms but not the people who have ´only´ graduated from university. For me it is not enough when a youngster can speak one or two foreign languages. It is not acceptable. Only technocrats and people loving their state and nation are able to deal with it, ´claims Ján Slota, the leader of Slovak nationalists.
Ing. Ján Slota, a Mayor of Žilina, one of the most popular communal politicians, claims that he is still the chairman of the Slovak National Party ( SNP), the oldest political party in Slovakia established in 1871. ´ It is not important who has been registered as a statutory representative of the party by Ministry of Home Affairs (Home Office). The essential is whom the public supports and whom do its members support. I dare to declare that I have support of majority, ´ he addresses to the argument they had about the leadership arising around Peter Sulovský, an ex- shadow Minister of Foreign Affairs in SNP. This group refused to accept the fusion of Slovak National Party and Slota´s True Slovak National Party at the re-union meeting in Detva in May 2003. County Court and Home Office approved it. This strong argument blew up at the time when Slovak National Party was obtaining at least eight or nine per cent of voters´ preferences, well actually after establishing the Confederation of National Powers of Slovakia, a union of national and nationalistic parties.

Mr Slota, at the end of the year 2003 you appealed to all nationalists to stop digging in the partial history, to find enough Christian f determination or the reunion profitable for the whole nation and Slovakia. Did they comprehend?
Under my leadership national powers reunited, actually. However, not only two national parties united but also the Confederation of National Powers where four pro- national subjects are involved was established. Those who declare themselves as being the main representatives of the party are there to destroy national parties from inside. There are only very few of them. That is an attempt of P.Sulovský ´s group and company. When I suggested them to convene a mega-meeting of all the members of the party in order to decide (concerning making a decision) about who they support in the post of a chairman, they refused to support this idea. They know very well about not being supported by any per cent of members at the congress. All those people meet Mr Meiar. They agreed to fuse or create a coalition with S (Folk Party- HZDS). It is direct evidence who gave them this task and why this group had been formed.
Mr. Meiar denied this information…
He can have denied. They are afraid of my percentage and a very strong SNS. Mr Sulovký will never have 5 per cent and it, and it is more convenient for both S- HZDS and the current government. An evident decrease of the SNP preferences nearly to the limit of the ability to be elected to the parliament after Mr. Sulovský´s registration can prove my declaration. They are afraid of Slota who has enabled to draw SNP to 15 or 20 per cent and therefore influenced the situation. It might happen that if SMER obtained 30-35 per cent and SNS 15-20 per cent in early or general election, it would be a new strong majority government.
In January, you wrote an open letter addressed to all District council of SNS in which you appealed all representatives and members to protect the group led by Mr Sulovský from ´ gaining the control over the party without having a mandate and being supported by government clique ´. How do you intend to solve this crisis?
The party is always destroyed from inside. Unqualified judicial / legal appeal and controversial decision of the court, which cancelled the will of two delegates of two parties, is not only a dangerous precedent of interference to declared members rights of the political. From my point of view, the right to decide about leading the party have only its right members. In Slovakia, the courts do not trust its inhabitants because it is whispered aloud about corruption in courts. It was to prevent it from an almighty octopus interfere to the competences of the political parties. That is why I appealed the representatives not to subordinate (not let anybody to dictate them) and let it to take away their legal right to make a decision about direction and leader of the party. Majority makes decisions in democratic system or not?
The position of national parties in the Integrated Europe is being discussed in Slovakia these days. What do you think about that?
The influence of national parties will grow. It is known that the success of national parties in Europe and I can prove it always increase in power in the environment of international movements and political internationalism, unionism, globalization and cosmopolitanism. The National Party is the most universal because it would fit with on the right side of the completely political spectrum, the main priorities in its hierarchy dominates general welfare and pushing through the interests of a state as a whole. We do not support interests of a few people (a small group of people), a social group or regional or ethnical interest. All citizens will profit from our politics.
We point out that we do not divide politics into the left wing and right wing, but based on its orientation there are two basic types: national and international. According to the value, we declare ourselves to solid conservative stream or to its opposite pole - liberalism. I am convinced that national parties will pursue a principle of state sovereignty and national independence as two main pillar of freedom.
Why do you believe that the influence and popularity of national and nationalistic parties will increase?
In the process of the world, globalization there must be a counterbalance to these trends and powers. I am not saying that Europe should not integrate, predominantly in the economic area but on the other hand, we must co-operate in order to proceed against American hegemony. We have particular historical, cultural and Christian roots and values. The pressure of the national consciousness and nationalism growing stronger in France, Germany and in Great Britain expresses the main tendencies in European development to return to its old traditions and values. I dare to say that both French President and Chancellor Schroeder follow the same principles as the Slovak National Party but being compared to our manners, they are not criticised and scandalized to pursue their interests. They are representatives of the big nations, we form a very small nation and that is why we are always patronized and lectured. Voters started to pay attention to what National Parties claim about the balance of national and common interests. We need to find the common ground, because their influence will grow gradually. The French, German and English are very protective in terms of their market, investments; they protect themselves and pretend to be the only and dominant European nation. It is fiction, utopia.
Is it possible to lead the genuine national and right-winged politics in the region of Slovakia? Everyone who pursues that kind of policy must be influential in banking, financial and investment sectors must be greatly supported by small manufactures and private entrepreneurs. It seems as if the process of globalization and its reforms were much stronger and influential. Are there any ways to adjust the level of globalization and national right-winged politics?
I allow claiming that among Slovak entrepreneurs there are many of those having a strong national feeling. However, working in very hard conditions they have very little time for politics. As a matter of the fact, clever and capable people are not engaged with politics but only those watching their own profit. That is the core of the argument. People interested in their own profit succeeded neither as entrepreneurs nor as economists. Unfortunately, it is case of our current government. ´ Boys´, who has just graduated from university and speaking one foreign language, usually act like wise guys. My professional development started from the ground, continued systematically, through many different functions and posts during the everyday confrontations with people. This environment created suitable conditions for my further improvement and thus I became a reliable and responsible person and manager. University is only the first and lowest stage in man's development. The´ fabulous´ revolution made a very big mistake. Young and inexperienced people had been running around the fountain holding lit candles in their hands and soon after that, they became either ministers or a state secretary. They were given very high posts. In my opinion, that is the main mistake made in our reforms, privatization and transformation of the socialistic society to capitalistic. ´ Pub theorists, artistic layabouts ´ sponsored by dollars in a taut cooperation with STB (State Security, the name for Secret Service during the period of communism) became the leading personalities of the velvet revolution. State Security had already known that socialism was in ruins.
You are criticising the support of the velvet revolution from the West, aren't you?
No, I am not. I am just criticising amateurism and unprofessional acting of our revolutionaries. The West would have been very naďve if it had not led that type of politics as it has been still doing since 1989. No matters, whether it is social or rigid capitalism. Money and profit are always the issue. It is foolish to think that someone helps you selflessly. Very intensive political and economic pressure coming from the West have knocked us down on own knees. For them it was an inevitable step to ruin us and then buy us in the process of privatization. There are only few ´leftovers´ such as Slovak Power Engineering, shares in Slovak Gas Industry or Water Plants. They are in debts. Our government cannot deal with a state budget deficit so they undersell these plants in order t o fulfil the budget. It is a big mistake of the ruling kinder management not interested in the increase of the national economy and protection of our national culture. They just want to maintain themselves and are unable to roof the professional side because they do not understand the matter. When someone leaves university and straight away enters the highest politics, he is capable to make a professional decision whether to erect a nuclear power plant or not. 14 or 15 milliards have already been invested in the plant reconstruction, so why should we just stop its repair because of the Austrians messing around on the other riverbank? What is it all about? Such a waste of money!
Robert Fico, the leader of the opposition party SMER (Direction in English) claims that the Slovak government is not free. Do you agree with him?
Yes. This government is completely servile and dependent on abroad as well as on the Hungarian coalition. I will name only one lapidary example: that is the opening of Hungarian University in Komárno. Along Mr Fronc, Slovak Minister of School and Education, only Hungarians participated, e.g. p.Csáky, Vice Prime Minister and B.Bugár, Vice- chairman of the parliament as well as Minister of Education from Hungary. Mr Fronc very briefly said a few words and those three were talking for ages as if there had been founded university in Hungary. For the price of keeping the coalition working, Slovak parties are able to make a pact with an evil. The words of Hungarian Minister sounded as if Komárno had already been a part of Hungary. Are those people our representatives?
Do you disagree with the reforms undertaken by our current government?
I am not against the reforms but against their pursuing by Slovak Government. Economic policy must be based on ensuring a particular social standard of majority, i.e. the middle class. State cannot give up its responsibility for the consequences of their policy. National parties are not allowed to avoid the social principle. We consider the state to be the form serving to its nation and thus participate on its historical development. Social studies were implemented in the 19th century and are based on the Social Church Teaching while building up the state. The essential European and Slovak traditions such as freedom, justice and solidarity should be pursued in the model of modern social state. All people should benefit from it.
Do you think that this Government leads anti-national politics? Is it captured by international investors?
Well, this government definitely does not lead pro - national politics, i.e. majority of Slovak people do not feel ´advantages´ of these reforms by themselves. Therefore, it is anti-national politics. All the government authorities or their representatives did not support the arising of the Independent Slovak republic in 1993; SMK (the Party of Hungarian coalition) refused it. I really do not like their orientation on the USA and the West which very often act mandatory and superiorly. Can our ministers perform an independent politics when an American Ambassador tells them off? The Slovak Government is able to do everything just to be please the foreigners and often go against their own people. The West supports this government otherwise; it would be already fallen apart. We will see in the referendum concerning the earlier election.
In December 2003, in your speech you proclaimed that all nationally orientated people and patriot should pursue a form National Europe, stop the policy of super nationalistic unification and give the power to whom it belong to - to sovereign states and their citizenship to the nations of Old Continent. Do your voters understand this matter?
I think, they do. After receiving some objective information from the European Union, They understood. It is necessary to learn what the nation is. Because it provides us with a space for our cultural and social development. We have to make sure that people's needs are watched and fulfilled and thus help the nation to live its relatively stable life and minimize the number of poor and unemployed. However, this non- national right winged government follows its goals by any means. They do not care after people. From economic point of view, we cannot be treated in the same way. If I earn a fortune, a have to pay higher taxes to provide enough funds for those, poorer ones.
Do you want to raise a new revolution and thus fight against the international capital and companies?
There is a democratic system in Slovakia, so everything ca be changed only by elections. I am not the supporter of the revolutions, because they usually bring chaos and contra revolutions. This government leads anti- national politics. If we want to change this situation, the new elections must be held and thus find a new alternative for the development of Slovakia. We do not fight against anybody, we fight for ourselves to make a profit equalling to the work distribution.
This theme is not often discussed in Slovakia…
Only due to a small number of objective journalists who occur in Slovakia. Media usually support the ruling authorities. They organize many shows and do not describe and analyse the real state in Slovakia. Objectiveness has died out.
Your main priorities are country- faith- family. What do you want to do to keep these values?
By emphasising and supporting them for their protection. The value of the country is presented by its oldest and firmest national principle. In fact, Slovaks miss their national self-esteem. We are far from Europe. Michael Billig, an Englishman says in his book that there is not a strictly given border between cosmopolitan people and those being considered as nationalists.´ He claims there is a bit of nationalism in every person, but in the West people got used to it and it is banal for them. Then he says that national identity is the most natural and important identity. From his point of view, our patriotism is a kind of boiling nationalism; ´that is why these national parties are presented in very negative way.
But let´s go back to our nation and party. Our Slovak National Party pursues the value of its national and cultural inheritance. On the other hand, we will feel the problem of foreigners' migration what might be dangerous for the nations. On the other hand, right-winged political parties are pushing very strict directions and precautions.
Is it true that many intellectuals do not admire you? What do you think about them?
We are completely different. I am a pragmatic person with technical thinking and leading me to reach my goals. Not stories and fables are important to me, but facts. I divide intellectuals into two groups, graduates from universities and those being publicized and described as ´top ten´ by our media. People from show business admire only themselves and they make jokes at the whole nation.
Why did you propose to ban the Party of Hungarian coalition?
I entered the politics at the press conferences, where are stated many evidences what was happening in the south of Slovakia. There are many members of Hungarian Security Service in Slovakia. Last year 150 arrived in Slovakia. I am asking myself. What are they doing here? There are lots of then in the area of a different state. They are harmful for our state. They are always in touch with their home country and forwarding the information to their secret service.
You have been a mayor of Žilina for 14 years. How is it possible that your town is not in debts? What strategy do you use in the town management?
Before I answer your question, I would lie to point out that at the last meeting of mayors in Žilina we proposed in order to decentralize state power to give Counties 40 per cent finances.
However, the documents were signed but we have not received our money yet. How can independent governing work then?
My best achievement was to finish up the construction of the trolley-buss lines. The town gave one milliard and the state 100 millions Slovak crowns. We built 2500 flats, repaired the swimming pool, a square and a football and ice stadiums. Our town acts as a businessperson, we trade with properties, support entrepreneurs...

Who is Ján Slota?
Ján Slota (1953) was born in Lietavská Lúka. His father was a strong patriot, one of the founders of Slovak Cultural Society. Hs father was a mine technician, and his mother looked after the whole family. The family always moved to the place where his father got a job. He studied at Technical University, At the Faculty of Mining. He graduated in Košice in 1977 with a degree in mining engineering. After 1989, he started to get involved in politics and in 1990, he was voted as a member of the Federal Parliament. Of former Czechoslovakia. In 1992 he was votes as member of the Slovak parliament and in 1994 he became the leader of the Slovak National Party and then until 1994. In May 2001, he established the True Slovak National Party and became its leader. In May 2003, the splittered reunited again and he was again elected as its chairperson. He likes beer, shooting; flying acrobacy riding a horse and Bryndzove halušky, (potato pasta with sheep processed cheese). He is the president of the football club and ice-hockey club in Žilina. 

Project that cost four milliards
The Building-up of an industrial park "Letisko Žilina" (The Airport Žilina) connected with wide modernization of an international regional airport, which wants to transport 300 thousand passenger per year.
After the cities Bratislava and Košice is the third economic most significant region in Slovakia surroundings of the city Žilina, which is looking forward for the long period from an increased interests of an international and domestic investors. Nowadays the most popular topic is the question whether the South-Korean automobile factory Hyundai will decide to invest in Žilina or neighbouring Poland. Another development of the city and its region doesn't have to depend only from potentional building-up of a new automobile factory. There is also the building-up of a new industrial park called "The Airport Žilina", which will be interconnected with the airport in Dolný Hriov.

The city Žilina and an Autonomous region of Žilina have already formally integrated this park between preferred activities of an economic and social development. The floater of this project is a Slovak Investment and Estate Company, Inc. (SIRS), which has owned 56% share in company The Airport Žilina, Inc., which carries on an airport in Dolný Hriov near the city Žilina.
"This airport owns a statute of an international airport and serves for the needs of the north-western region of Slovakia (cities Trenín, Považská Bystrica, Púchov, Žilina, Kysuce, Orava, Martin, Ružomberok), which has circa 1,2 million of inhabitants. Every aeroplane from all the countries can land here (if their measure allows it so). So far the airport has been dispatching only from one thousand to two thousands passengers yearly in irregular service," says George Trabelssie, the Chairman of the Board of Directors of the company SIRS, Inc. This 33-year-old native from Žilina, where he finished marketing and management studies at the University of Žilina (ex-university of transit and communication), came back after eighteen years from Syria to Žilina, to help the city and the region of Žilina to realise interesting projects. "The aim of a company is to give a helping hand to self-governments with projects, which they aren't able to finance from their own budget. I don't hide that we want to earn money from the project. However, we come out from a philosophy, that it is easiest to earn money in a rich region. For this reason we want to conduce to his growth."
Modernization of the airport
he heart of the prepared industrial park is the airport of Žilina, which is even now used to their random flights by some foreign companies having their factories in north Slovakia (INA Kysuce, Volkswagen Martin, SCP Ružomberok, Johnson-Controls Martin, Tesco Žilina, Ecco Slovakia Martin, AVC adca).
"The airport is very important also from the sight of foreign visitors of the businessmen in the dealings about the export of our companies. This trend still continues and nowadays is already occasionally executed also an airfreight," says G.Trabelssie, which prepared wide project for a reconstruction and modernization of the airport: "before our entrance to the company The Airport Žilina, Inc., there was a pending bankruptcy in the company. We want to use its very advantageous position on a crossroad of the significant european corridors - railway, road and in the future also shipping transport. The area of the airport and whole locality will be directly connected to the highway D1 in direction south - north. At this place will be also a highway crossroad and a beginning of a highway D3 in direction to the east of Slovakia. At the same time the central railway Bratislava - Žilina (to which is the main transhipment railway station Dolný Hriov connected) runs through."
According to the project of a building-up of an industrial park and a modernization of the airport, which will last 4 to 5 years, the investments in amount four milliard Slovak crowns are assumed. The most necessary things are a railway reconstruction, building-up of a new terminal with a capacity for 300 thousand passengers per year, building-up of a cargo terminal, of an area of fuelling economy and infrastructure in the airport surroundings.
"The most important is a prolongation of a taking-off and landing runways to two kilometres. In the airport surroundings, there should be a golf course with eighteen pits on an area of 93 hectares, a tennis court, congress centre and a capacity of 250-300 bed. If we attracted suitable investors, it would be financially very attractive place," supposes G. Trabelssie and continues: "we would like to obtain finances from a Slovak and foreign investors, from subsidiary funds of EU, from state, residential and region self-government budget."
The periodical line is a priority
The management of the company SIRS, Inc. considers as a strategic task number one an application of periodical flying lines. "We discuss with several airworthiness. On the base of our marketing researches we know, that inhabitants of our region would prefer an air-connection with Prague, Vienna or Munich. However, it is only because they are accustomed to these airports. However, in fact they need to get somewhere, where they will change their flight to Western Europe or to another continent. That's why we discuss also with polish air carriers, which carry on the internal flights in Poland and which are interested also in connection to Žilina to the following lines from Warsaw..."
How real is this co-operation with polish airport in Katowice, where the periodical flights to London, Frankfurt above Mohan and to Brussels are held? For example, the aeroplanes of the company Air Polonia could transport passenger from airport Žilina to Katowice.
"It is one from all the alternatives. Primary we would like to fill a demand in a business sphere, especially of foreign visitants, at a connection to significant european economic centres. In consequence, we expect a flight accumulation in an area of active tourist trade for local tourism and especially for spa-tourism (Rajecké Teplice, Bešeová, Bojnice, Trenianske Teplice…). Later will be possible to plan an application of the flights from Žilina to Mediterranean in a holiday time," declares Ján Stehlík, Director of the Airport Žilina.
Industrial park
Prepared industrial park at the airport in a measure of 36 hectares is planned near the highways D1 and D3. Regionally it is divided into six industrial zones easily and quickly interconnected with the airport, railway transhipping station and highways. The basic criterion for business subjects is a usage of an air transport for production component delivery. Nowadays these requirements are fulfilled by automobile and electro-technical industry.
Within the frame of this territory is expected that industrial buildings will be simply arranged to a hall folder, by rectangles combination (84x30x9m) and squares (36x30x9 m) with 12- metre gaps. Transoms from above will make lighting. Forasmuch as it dealt about a territory, which will be in future operated by several proprietors, there is possible variability of hall combination. It means that by equal ground-plan pillar schema it is possible to join the halls, eventually to connect them by the transoms. The hall usage is poly-functional - manufacturing, stocking, administrative requirements.

Her songs sadden and gladden
"I accept my voice as a god-gift from heaven. Moreover, when I have been already endowed with this talent, why wouldn't I make the other's lives nicer? Let everybody remember, that we are a nation with big history. That Slovak people are connected not only by a common territory and common language, but also history with big personalities and an exciting strength of folk traditions and spiritual values, which nobody else has," figures Darina Lašiaková, folklore songs singer.
Only once in time is born a man, to whom is afforded to become a star. Mrs. Darina Lašiaková (72) has already been such star more then five decades. She develops and improves this valuable God-gift unthinking at advantages and rewards. Her singing doesn't underlie the modern trends neither evanescent style. You will find there everything - pleasure, tenderness, love, hurt and sorrow. Even those, who say, that they aren't a folk music fans, will become regardful when listening the wedding song "Svadobná odobierka" or the beautiful nostalgic song called "Na kameneku sedela". Moreover, they would have to be stonyhearted, if her deep-felt singing hasn't called their attention. If he didn't feel sincere tenderness, goodness, kindness and amiableness from her voice and face.

Mrs Darinka, how could one still stay, in the middle of nowadays haste, nervousness and cruelties, sensitive, receptive and considerate to the others?
I like people. I don't suspect them without a reason and I don't judge them at first sight. This superficial judgement is many times very mendacious. From the conversations with people, who I already know, I use to be affected. Especially, when they talk about their sorrows. I try not only to listen to them talking but also to understand them and to cheer them a bit up verbally. And if somebody begin to talk about someone's mistakes in our conversation, I will turn the conversation to his qualities. After all, everyone have some. I am sure, that if I improve these qualities in our conversation, I´ll do more for him as if I watch him badly or if I take the part with him in these bad thoughts, and thereby stir up a bigger hate in him. In the raw - I don't use to hurt people. However, if I unwillingly did so, it could happen that he wouldn't like to talk with me more and misgiving between us would only increase.
When did you feel for the first time, that you have a valuable jewel in your throat?
I really don't know. There wasn't any utterance about the jewel. I liked singing from a girl. I have inherited the hearing and the voice from my parents, who sang usually and somehow naturally, especially when there was a providential moment, peaceful and festal. Since then has hatched my respect to singing and our beautiful folk songs.
In fact, all our family relatives sang, not only parents, but also my sister, brother and I. When we met, we sang all in a glee. However, I also like singing alone. I hardly waited when somebody asks me to sing a song. I remember how I liked going with my mum to the tailor Flora. When she tried and pinned mum's clothes, she always asked me to sing her something. She even said which song she would like to hear, because she knew all my repertory. Once when both were in a hurry, there was no time for the song. I cried all the way home. Mum asked me "why are you crying Darinka?" I answered, "Because the auntie Flora didn't tell me to sing"and I started to cry more.
Did you have the opportunity to show your talent somewhere in public?
When I started the school, from the first class the teachers "reached to me" and so I performed in every school celebration, but also on Mother's Day or other events. I felt how a "fish in a water" on the platform. In dramas I sang all singing Angeles, dutiful and naughty schoolchildren. Then, later, I acted a singing geisha in a performance "Višový sad". When I attended a secondary grammar school in Trstená, I performed many times. When I was at the University, I sang in Lúnica. Later I started to work in radio, where I am still working and recording.
You visit retirement's homes, hospitals, foster houses; you give pleasure, peace, and joy without financial valuation. What leads you to do so?
I accept my voice as a gift from heaven. And if I am endowed with it, why wouldn't I make the others lives nicer? I like, when people write to me and at the opportunity of various concerts they express, that they like my songs and that
it helps them in their bed times. I have an old friend from the university; her name is Zoubkova. And when she is feeling blue, she calls me from Poprad and says: "Darinka, please, sing to me. The one called "Ach, Oravské vrchy." ". And I sing her to the telephone. When I cease singing, we're still quiet for a while and she tells me: "now I am much better". In such moments, I realise again, what I got from the God.
In childhood, your desires were headed towards a medicine. You wanted to be a paediatrician. What had decided, that you have started to dedicate on folklore?
The medicine held me for a long time. Not once, as the years were passing, it crossed my mind, also nowadays, especially when I visit hospitals. However, the god's will was different. Lúnica and folk art had fascinated me, so I decided to pass the entrance exams to the Philosophical Faculty, where I started to study at the department of Musical sciences and Ethnography. Since the third year on the university, I had started to collect and to note down the songs for my thesis. Not only songs, but also people, who sang them, interested me. I have been drawing from those songs and people's experiences. They are something like a non-drying spring for me. They have influenced my life equally as my good parents. They were as two compact ropes, those that I took hold of in various living perils, storms or doubts.
You have performed in a feature film "Rodná zem" (The Country of Birth) (l953), and in a TV ballad " O Vojtovej Maríne" (l964), "Kub" (l965). Didn't the acting attract you little bit?
No, it didn't. I wouldn't be a good actress. The desire for singing, after the simple, folklore singing, was stronger. neither in opera singing I wouldn't probably be very good, although I love opera, and I also admire opera singers, I raise the hat to their art. But my, rather quiet as a strong voice wouldn't reach the needed results of a good opera singer. Therefore, I stayed on folklore songs, which I still master more.
During your university studies, you were the soloist of Lúnica. How did the Lúnica performers live in the 60s?
In Lúnica I was very lucky. I liked going on song training, I liked learning new songs, and I liked wearing various costumes and then singing soulfully at smaller or bigger performances at home or abroad. Although I repeatedly think, that nothing was a long time ago. But Lúnica celebrated its unbelievable 50 years. There were many ex-performers from Lúnica in Istropolis hall in Bratislava. There was a full theatre. After the performance, we streamed from the saloon and we didn't know who would be the firs to run to. I knew some of the people there; the others were unknown for me at all. With my best friend from Lúnica whose name is Alica Pavlíková, we said, "let's go to the place, where we see some grey head" - and it helped. We were pleased that we are together again. But we also became sad a little. Why only the time has to run so quickly...
You have two children, and five grandchildren, too. Don't the folklore songs lure them?
Yes, I have to two children-their names are Jožko and Marienka, 5 grandchildren and 2 great-grandchildren. We hurried up, didn't we? My granddaughter Zuzka dances and sings in an ensemble called "Vienok", the other granddaughter Simonka has already been in "einka" for eight years and in the same ensemble, also Kristinka has been performing for two years. They sing nicely and they like folklore songs singing, even though many popular songs lure them also. After all, it is normal in this age.
The Slovak radio audience met your voice not only in songlike, but also in a spoken form. As an editress of an editorial office of a folklore music, in which you have worked for 35 years, you prepared and moderated a broadcast cycle "Mountains", "People", "Song" and many other broadcasts. There were many valuable and interesting confessions of people living near the mountains. How do you remember these broadcasts?
I chose the mountain roads, villages and secluded dwellings. I took a fancy to a mountains more then before, but especially those human birds of pray, who live there. I recorded there a quantity of beautiful songs, which I learnt after that. They engraved into my memory, into my ears, but especially into my heart. They were that strange moments, when I arrived from a stirring city and I entered into little, lonely secluded dwellings, where little old men and women lived. Then I realised, that I enter to a temple. Especially, when my dearest parents died. At that time, I felt bigger desire to visit this kind of settlements. I remembered the well- known home smell, when I saw the well-known stove, table, beds prepared for the night, on the walls well-known pictures, big crucifix, hanged there without moving during many generations even if the world around twisted, between them. There I felt as I was at home.
There isn't any significant folklore event, whether feast in "Východná", "Detva", but also the foreign festivals didn't get along and won't get along without your active presence. Are only our natives, or also foreigners, which don't understand the song lyrics, professed to you?
Well, truly, I hardly count the number of events that I have attended. Not only in our country, Slovakia, but also in abroad. The audience or participants of various folklore events accept our folklore songs in admiration. I am pleased with this and together with us many our nationals, who don't hide their tears of emotion, but also a pride for landscape, which they came from. And how do foreigners react? Usually with spontaneous applause, and truly, repeatedly also with ovations. I am sure, that the fact that they don't understand the language isn't a barrier at all. After all, music and songs are international language and the people all around the world can speak it if they want to.
The nation differences and particularities are slowly disappearing, and it leads to a united sight on Europe. In accordance with your opinion, won't it have its repercussion on folklore culture of the countries?
Every nation has to keep an eye on it all alone. The endeavour to give, or unify every nation to one level, blunder on a natural disapproval. Individual nations will want to call an attention to them. Well, we're going to Europe, but let everybody realise, that we are nation with big history. that Slovak are connected not only by its common territory and common language, but also by history big personalities and the exciting strength of folklore traditions and spiritual values, which nobody else has. And this will probably say every nation. When one nation will prove this, we will do the same. And this will connect us again, even if we are disputed.
The heap of pop music is somehow dangerously treading out folklore music interests. In accordance with your opinion, does the Slovak folk-song have a chance to remain?
I am sure that it won't disappear. One folklore song collector around the year 1850, wrote in introduction to one book: "it is sure that we have to try to record at many folklore songs as it is possible, because they are vanishing and possibly after ten years they will leave forever and never come back". And as you can see, 150 years after that folk-song lives between our people. Of course, it has moved away from those crumbling wooden dwellings, because there it could die with them. But it has moved elsewhere and even between youth and children. We can say that it has moved onto the platforms, to the ensembles and big festivals how's "Východná", "Terchová", "Detva", "Myjava" and others, where juniors perform, above all. I am frequently surprised with its wonderful beauty. Folklore songs are written by a life alone, so our nation's life, too. The nation that will look at these songs only through the fingers could lose many of them. In fact, nobody can, neither want to take the folklore song away. Only we can damn it. And this would be the saddest thing.
You're a believer. Does the belief help you hard life situations?
Yes, I am believer. I convince myself at strength and Lord Pardon every day. I suppose that belief in Lord would be foundation stone of our life. So its fixed base. There isn't the other way. And the happy nation is, which realise it as soon as possible. In addition, temptations, which will fall on it, won't be aimless. I have tried it all alone. Yes, there is no other way! Slovak man was believer ever before. Our history proves it inerrantly, especially from the age of St. Cyril and Method. Moreover, I have to mention, that to this evidence belongs, apart from other spiritual values, also folklore song. One historian said, that who wants to write a history of our nation, is ought to list in a folklore songs collections. He wouldn't know the exact dates of the events, but he would certainly find out, how Slovak man was. What did he prefer, what did he love, what was he afraid of, what did he hate, what did he keep and profess, what did he believe in, what was sacred for him, and what wouldn't he betray for nothing in the world. Save us the heritage of our Fathers, Lord! Only faith in God could save today's frequently hopeless generation and possibly avert it from aberration, what threatens to it. Desire that HE was a guide and on our united European way.

The spirit of Hatshepsut, the Queen of Egypt
She inaugurated another era of peace, internal stability and did not lead any wars. During her reign, many building projects were undertaken, notably the temple at Deir al-Bahri and the obelisks at the Temple of Amen at Karnak, both of them had been made of pink granite from Assuania. Hatshepsut renewed the towns and temples, erected new well-watered sites and constructed new temples.
Egypt holds a unique fascination- there is not a chance avoid its stunning wonders, so perfect and magnificent ancient architecture and the splendour of pharaohs´ world. All these remarkable sights will astound you immediately. Tombs, statues, sphinx, pyramids, obelisks palaces, columns, paintings…They are associated with many ruling dynasties, particularly with the Old Kingdom dynasties. Among the names of the pharaohs arranged in a very log list aged more than three thousand years thee name of the Queen Hatshepsut can be found. However, not much information about her remained. She reigned between the years 1490 and 1468 BC., in the era of 18th dynasty. Her life story is as exciting as many other pharaohs´ whose lives and fates were mystified.

Hatshepsut married her half-brother Thutmose II, with whom she co-ruled. They did not have their own descendants together. After his death, she ruled as regent for her husband's son (His mother was one of Thutmose´s wives), ThutmoseIII. She soon took power in her own right, becoming the only woman to rule as pharaoh.
Wise ruler
The reign of Hatshepsut extended to her death- she had been on the throne for 22 years. She contributed on the development of Egypt, she did not lead the wars and had rather have given up expanding the kingdom to the furthest destinations, which were just the burden for Egypt. The Queen endeavoured to develop an international trading. Her marriage to Senmut, an architect is the main reason why many building projects were undertaken during her reign. She also ordered an important trading expedition to Punt, on the east African Coast. After the expulsion of the Hyksos many temples and towns were renewed and rebuilt, the system of new well-watered sites was constructed and new temples erected. Notable are the obelisks from the Temple of Amen at Karnak. They are both made of pink granite and the higher one is 30 metres high. Her tomb was located in the Valley of the Kings. It has the longest entrance corridor and is the deepest, it lies 100 metres underneath the level of entrance.
Only the memorial temple reminds her
The Queen Hatshepsut is remained to nowadays visitors by unique monument of Ancient Egyptian architecture- the memorial temple in Deir el-Bahrí. This monumental terraced building lies only a few kilometres in the south from the Valley of the Kings. In a rocky bay under bizarre, nearly vertical steep cliff of el-Kurn.
Senmut, a very famous architect, designed this vast temple consisting of three large terraces built above one another, mutually interconnected by many pavements reminding platforms. Every terrace is bordered by columns halls, i.e. colonnades. The first has 22, the second 88 and the third 84 columns. The lowest was like a paradise. The huge garden shone green, in the plantations papyrus and trees were sown into the holes filled with imported soil.
On the both sides of the second terrace, there are two chapels of goddess Hathor and a god Anupev as well as Solar temple of a god Re-Harakchey. Along with other Egyptian temples, a large number of wall paintings decorated Hatshepsut temple. The most remarkable are vividly painted scenes of an expedition to Punt, the land of incense, an invitation of an Egyptian expedition by the people of Punt, and the scenes of loading the trading boats and the cruise back home. The hall of birth reveals the cycle of the queen's birth and some drawings concerning her divine origin. The whole temple used to be surrounded by a stonewall, another colonnades, platforms and an entrance gate reached via an alley of sphinxes.
Her step son - conqueror
In the 19th century, this temple was discovered in ruins caused not only not by past times, erosion and earthquakes but also by Hatshepsut´s descendant, Thutmose III. who removed and destroyed her statues, relieves and portraits with particular satisfaction. He exploited the new methods of warfare to pursue a much more aggressive policy toward their neighbours. While his aunt Hatshepsut had lost almost all conquered lands. According to some historians, he was the most famous ruler of Egypt. He expanded the kingdom to its greatest extent, defeating the Hurrians on the river Euphrates and pushing the frontiers beyond the fourth cataract of the Nile. Thutmose III demonstrated the power and wealth of New Kingdom is clearly exhibited in the monuments he built in Weset. Therefore, this is a story of the Queen Hatshepsut whose son caused that nearly disappeared from the history. However, the view at the temple at Deir el- Bahrí conjures up the images of a wise ruler contributing on the development of an Ancient Egypt. One may feel as if her spirit had still been living in this mysterious building so remarkable in its architecture and so never lasting.

A war through the tempting white lies
Since the times of Second World War American Army Propaganda has had its experience with hiding, distorting information and bending the truth. They concealed many tragic mistakes.
"No, you will not find a paradise here," said Mazen Dana, a camera operator of Reuters in one of this warrior reports from Iraq. ´ Where are dozens of soldiers who lost their lives if not in the paradise? ´ Steve Roberts, a British sergeant, wrote to his wife. Nowadays we talk about their souls only in spiritual way. They are both dead. An American soldier while filming shot Mazen Dana. Steve Roberts was attacked to this chest near Basra. He might have survived if he had been wearing a bulletproof vest. Three days before his death, he was ordered to hand it in due to the lack of them.

Both these deaths belong to the category of tragic mistakes. The beginning of American invasion to Iraq was winding in the same way. It was accompanied by many wrong managerial and logistic decisions due to which dozens of American soldiers breathed their last breath / passed away. After all American troops suffered the heaviest casualties in the first days of invasion were caused not by Iraqi people but by their own failures.
No army would praise their failures, well the other way round. They would prefer mystification as it could be proved in the case of Jessica Lynch. Allied Iraqi troops captured her during the convoy assault; they placed her into a hospital from where she was being freed by a Special American Troop during very unclear situation. Based on official propaganda she became a 20-year- old heroine ´fighting for her life´. She herself confessed that she had not fired even once because her shotgun had been stuck and she said about her capture that she had been scared, fell down on her knees and prayed. ´ After that I do not remember anything, ´ she said. She doubted the whole act of a special troop. Army claims that soldiers had to shoot up their way to her during this rescuing mission. Nevertheless, she denies this version and considers it as not true.
The propaganda of an American Amy has had its experience with hiding, distorting information and bending the truth since the Second War. Many tragic failures were concealed. The matter of fact has been exaggerated to glorifying heroic acts, which were only the tragic war of arms.
Cases of Kelly and Tiger.
Jessica Lynch´ s case had its analogical pattern - in the fate of one of the first national heroes of the Second World War, with Captain Kelly. According to an official version, he ordered his paratroops to jump and by using his plane, he torpedoed commander's gangplank of Japanese War Ship Hiruna. The other side is more prosaic. The pilot Kelly destroyed not a warship but a transport ship and Japanese missile shot him when he wanted to catapult himself before his co-fighters.

Šariš reinforces its position
In 7 years company SABMiller invested in Pivovar Šariš, inc. already 1,5 milliard crowns. Brewery Šariš belongs to technologically most modern brewery in Slovakia and nowadays it reaches the top increase of purchase and market share.
26 May 2004 will expire 37 years from the time when in Pivovar Šariš, inc. (Brewery Šariš, Inc) near the town Prešov in eastern Slovakia the first strike of beer was cooked. Up to now they have cooked more than 234 millions hectolitres of beer, best record in year 2003 (1,15 mil). With this volume, the brewery confirmed its positron of the biggest beer producer in Slovakia. Its light twelve-rated beer "Šariš Premium" obtained already the third gold medal on a prestigious world competition of quality "Monde Selection" and thereby an international appreciation for a high quality "Monde Selection Trophy 2003". As well as dark beer Šariš 11% which also got the award.

Welcome in a Mesozoic!
The unique and exclusive exposition "Return of the Dinosaurs"in Shopping Centre Optima in Košice is very successful. Two thousand of people visit it, in average, per day. Parents make the first photographs of their children with Brachiosaur that looks peacefully, but reaches 23 metres of length.
Welcome in a unique pre-historical world, welcome in a world, where the words "He" and "She" were unknown terms, where only innumerable Galaxies produced the harmony, where was still neither reference about "Man". Welcome in the world, whose only memorial is time. The age, gone long time ago, which signs engraved on a few fossil findings and which spirit delighted only from pre-historical animals skeletons. Welcome in the world of a fantasy, in which is allowed to know only what was allowed to know for us. Welcome in the world of time - in the beginning of time, which ends with our consciousness, which ends with a Man.

Quo vadis Europe?
European nations have intended to unify since the Middle Ages. The history is phenomenon responsible for its birth. European philosophy and frontiers terminated in the birth of Europe. However, what kind of Europe do we want to erect and reconstruct? Where are all the discussions concerning this matter taking place? What are the intentions of Europeans in these discussions?
Soon after the end of the First World War, this deeply affected Europeans sharing disillusionment and anxiety of a modern chaotic world, a French writer Paul Valéry (1871-1945) analysed the further fate of this continent. In 1922, he addressed to the students at University in Zurich the following words: ´ In my opinion only the nations who were being influenced by the three following aspects in the process of historical development can be considered as Europeans. The first aspect is an Ancient Rome (…), an everlasting model of the well-established and organized empire. the second is Christianity always vividly and progressively determining the depth of consciousness (….) and finally Ancient Greek influence by which we differ from other civilizations. We should be grateful to Greece for the discipline of spirit as well as for the method of thinking connecting everything with a person, with the whole human being.´

Six from Sixtieth Festival
It has finally come also to Košice. In a comedy, "Living for a three times" will act also Milan Knažko. "Radošinci" will reminiscence their up to now creation in an "Entertainer Memorial". As well as Jií Suchý will reminiscence his hits from fifties. Cimrmans will play their "Hospoda na Mýtince" in gala performance already for millenary times! "Divadlo na Zábradlí" will perform an exciting "Terasa" (the Terrace) and "inoherní klub" will perform a spectacle "Misantrop".
In the days 13-18 April 2004 continues a Festival of a little stagy forms called Six from Sixtieth with its spring tour. Festival, which had its successful opening last year Reduta in Prague and culminated with four-hour finishing marathon in Lucerna, this year is organized by "Divadelní Agentura Echo a Tichý-Ježek" (the Theatrical Agency Echo and Tichý - Jezek) in collaboration with Forsa corporation, Košice. In six Moravian and Slovak towns will gradually introduce six theatres with six staging - inoherni Klub (Dramatic Piece club), Divdlo Járy Cimrmana (the Jara Cimrman Theatre), Divadlo Na zábradlí, Radosinske najivné divadlo (Radošina Nave Theatre), Semafor and Štúdio L+S.

Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966)
Under the name "My reality" takes place, in Mirbachov Palace Gallery in Bratislava up to 11 April 2004, an exposition of one of the most famous and the most unique european sculptors and graphic artists. The first show of Giacometti´s works in Slovakia brings a graphic cycle from the last eight years of the author's life (Endless Paris). This cycle documents, how Giacometti retained in his works what he had seen. These works, made in "easy way", illustrate, in almost diurnal way, space of living and working, in which the author has lived almost all his life since years of his studies. The exposition is held in co-operation with Swiss Cultural Foundation Pro Helvetia, under the patronage of Swiss Confederation ambassador Rudolf Staub and Mayor of Slovak capital city Bratislava, Andrej urkovský.

Dimenzie No.3/2022Messages from Davos
County of Knowledge and Strategic Challenges
Church of St. Cross in Nin
"Croatian Bethlehem"
Georgia 's European Integration
Who robs Ukraine of grain?
Cradles of Spas in Croatia
The Blind Alleys of European Politics
Will the autumn elections be free?
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