Home    Archive issue    2011    August/September 2011

August/September 2011

Who and what will help Serbs in Kosovo?
Slovakia has given up its military training
A Wooden Church in Kostrino
Life in Stužica
Centre where you will not get wet
Reputation of Radičova´s government
The economic governance that the EU needs
Towards a New Model of Federal State
They want to stop Czechization of Moravia
The UN wants a new member
Why did Jews not accept Christ (Part III)?
Sport stars overseas
Slovaks do not like being told the truth
The Image of the Woman in Photography
He tried to feed a good wolf

 
Editorial
Who and what will help Serbs in Kosovo?
For more than two weeks, Kosovo Serbs have been fighting for their future at the barricades near the administration crossings of Brnjak and Jarinje, which separate the territory of Kosovo and Metohija from the Serbian Republic. They do not fight with guns but gravel and wood. They place them on the roads in order to block transport from the administration borders further to the inland of this south Serbian province that has been officially under the international administration of the UN since 1999. In February 2008, however, Kosovo Albanians split it up into two parts by having declared so- called the Republic of Kosovo having been supported by some powers such as the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy. Pristine bodies of so-called Republic of Kosovo, which is still under the international protectorate, and supervision of the European Union and NATO (the missions of EULEX and KFOR) control three quarters of the territory of the former Old Serbia, as Kosovo and Metohija used to be called. Four local Serbian self- governing bodies control one quarter situated in the north of Kosovo with approximately 60,000 Serbs. They are connected to the Serbian Republic and do not respect existence of so- called Republic of Kosovo and its jurisdiction in the north of the province. Small Serbian enclaves, which had survived Albanian pogrom in March 2004 (expelling over the river Ibar, slaughtering, demolishing Orthodox churches), live in other parts of the province but more or less in ethnical ghettos and in villages under the protection of the armies of KFOR and EULEX, the mission of the European Union.
Barricades of Kosovo Serbs block other roads as well as the bridge that divides Kosovo Mitrovica into its north- Serbian and south- Albanian parts. This is the way of showing the protest against the essential change of the situation. In September, KFOR soldiers under German leadership, members of the police mission EULEX, Kosovo policemen and custom officers seized administration crossings of Jarinje and Brnjak and began to change it into standard border crossings between the Kosovo Republic and Serbia.
In a few days, having used barbed wire, they gradually separated “protection zone” around the crossings (up to the distance of 600 metres) and de facto, they changed it into smaller military bases. At the places where Serbs had used bulldozers to dig and create alternative crossings, they intervened, seized the places and changed them back into barbed wired areas. This war culminated at the end of September when after shooting, four soldiers and eleven Serbs were injured.
Changes of the situation, which, meanwhile, had gained obvious support of American, German, French, Italian and British support, in order to protect “territorial integrity of the Kosovo Republic and Pristine jurisdiction in the entire territory,” began so- called custom and trade war between Belgrade and the Republic of Kosovo. On July 20, 2011, Kosovo Albanians imposed an embargo on import of goods from Serbia and imposed 10% import tax to products from Bosnia and Herzegovina as a reply to the fact that these countries have blocked import of all products from Kosovo and they do not allow anybody with the Kosovo passport to cross their administration borders. Special troops of Kosovo tried to seize the crossings of Jarnje and Brnjak in order to “assure imposing the embargo.” Kosovo Serbs protested immediately, they blocked crossings (they burnt one of them) and the entire Albanian action, which had allegedly no support of the USA and EU, ended up as a fiasco- Special Troops of Kosovo lost one man and had to return to Pristine. Serbs celebrated their small victory not knowing that it was just a test for finding out Serbian reaction. In addition, diplomatic war concerning “custom’s stamp” of the Kosovo Republic between Serbs and Albanians continued despite having brought no results and agreement.
However, in the background, the troops of KFOR (Kosovo Force) to which the UN had given a mandate of neutrality when keeping peace and supervising security of all citizens in the province regardless their nationality. In spite of that and without an agreement of the Security Council of the UN, KFOR soldiers seized the administration crossings where Kosovo Serbs and members of UNMIK (a peace mission of the UN for Kosovo).
Kosovo Serbs do not want to recognize the Republic of Kosovo and do not want to leave the north of Kosovo. They claim that they are protecting the UN Resolution 1244 from the year 1999 on the barricades. This resolution affirmed the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Serbia including Kosovo and Metohija that are autonomies within Serbia. Kosovo Serbs and Belgrade pointed out that according to this resolution there is no Republic of Kosovo, no state borders between Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo, no Kosovo customs and stamps.
“It is better to defend ourselves by barricades and blockades than by armed resistance,” read leaflets that Serbs threw to KFOR soldiers. It was their reply to leaflets from KFOR that soldiers had sent to Serbian barricades. They read that KFOR in accordance with the resolution of the SC UN is responsible for freedom of movement, that barricades are illegal, are not acceptable way of showing discontentment, and threaten citizens’ security.
The entire crisis is just a continuation of a twelve- yearlong crisis in the international politics when some powers violate international law and do not respect agreements about Serbia within the UN.
The Republic of Kosovo is an American baby in Balkan and it is a result of geo- political play against Russia. Washington, in the background of Albania and Serbian conflict, has not pursued the rule of law and order but its own interests. Later, criminals and family clans involved useless European Union and its most powerful states in the conflict so that this goal was overleapt by philosophy of Europeization of Kosovo, which is ruled. The public in Central and West Europe do not know that while Brussels is putting pressure on Belgrade to recognize the Republic of Kosovo and thus Serbia might get an invitation to the direct negotiations about the membership in the EU, Kosovo Albanians de facto have created “Schengen area” with Albania and have stolen generous international financial help of donors.
Serbian, Brussels, European, American and Russian politicians claim that it is necessary to solve the crisis in the north of Kosovo using dialogues and new negotiations. The reason says that it is needed to reach a compromise. Nevertheless, which compromise solution will be fair? Ahtisaari´s plan had assumed that Kosovo Serbs would have a wide autonomy within the Republic of Kosovo. This alternative has been silently accepted by the Brussels headquarters. Pristine refuses such proposals, neither it like the idea of joining the north of Kosovo with the Serbian Republic in order to set peace and quiet in the area between Serbs and Albanians forever. If the crisis were solved this way, Belgrade would have to recognize the Republic of Kosovo first. However, what will help Kosovo Serbs to improve their lives and future? Nobody knows to answer this question. The saddest about the entire crisis is that imposing of the resolution of the SC UN is not being solved by changing of the Republic of Kosovo into an autonomous province but it is pushing Serbs to accept continual albanization and inslamization of whole Kosovo and Metohija. It seems rather weird that neither Brussels nor west powers talk about the fact that how long will the Republic of Kosovo under the protectorate of the EU and UN be an abscess of unjust American foreign policy in Balkan.
Robert Matejovic, editor-in-chief
    
Personality
Slovakia has given up its military training
“The issue of the complex safety of citizens and society is not perceived as a seasonal hit but as a trend that we have to deal with seriously and systematically,” claims Miroslav Kelemen, a Brigadier- General in advance and a protector for the foreign relationships at the University of Security Management in Košice.
 
Róbert Matejovič
Photo: the author
 
After 26 years of active service in the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic, he decided to finish working in the resort and become a soldier in advance. Until July 31, 2011, he had been a rector the Academy of Armed Forces of General Milan Rastislav Štefánik. Under his command, they managed to develop military character of the school, to spread bachelors study by engineering and doctoral studies but also by other forms of lifelong education of soldiers. Today, he works for private and civil University of Security Management in Košice. The school was established in June 2006, based on the branch of the Faculty Special Engineering of the University of Žilina that had been systematically built and developed in spring 2001. In Slovakia, he created a studying program called Security Management.
At present, the main goal of the school, with approximately 3,100 students, is to provide bachelor, engineering and perspective doctoral studies in the field of assurance and security management of a citizen and his economic activities, the system of information security, security systems in economy, transport, logistics and in the field of environmental management. Even though it focuses on civic specialists, members of the Police Corps of the SR, customs administration, public administration, private security services and those who are interested in serving in the Armed Forces of the SR, it is open and available to all interested in the field of security management and criminality prevention.
 
Mr Pro- rector, you have reputation of a respected specialist and manager with a small extra - a manager of change. So far, you have helped in the resorts of defence and mainly education. What led you to the decision to finish the military service and changed in professional orientation?
 I work in the resort of defence, at the place of performance of state service where I was told to go by the state regardless the needs or requirements of my family. I tried professionally and honestly to follow the words “I serve my country” in my everyday work with a team of co- workers, colleagues and subordinates. After fulfilling professional duties? I used to commute to meet my family for over 20 years. Someone does not leave the region, where he was born, all his life. When you dedicate all your energy to quality and visible results of your work, eventually, you will need to make a significant change that you use to gain new power. I get it from everyday contact with my family, people who I love, with old or new friends I am surrounded by. The right time for a change came in August this year. Having looked back to my previous professional life, I have to say that repeating management influenced it as changes influencing people, processes and events that led to the preparation of coming generation of state security community. I decided to use my knowledge and skills to educate civic specialists who are lacked and have their future along with “uniformed community”.
 
Why did you accept the offer to help young and unappreciated but interesting and useful school of higher education?
Out of six job offers, I chose private sector of university education at the place of my permanent residence. I consider this new school as a successful project with a great potential for further development in favour of a graduate from this school for security practice and theory. I am aware of the fact that success is not forgiven in Slovakia. On my way, there are many supporters and opponents giving me more energy accompanying me. Smaller university can be more flexible and adjust to the needs of the market in a specific segment than for example it is in case of universities with more than fifty- year traditions and wide scale structure. I see my contribution in active participation and support of the system of management of quality of education, outputs of pedagogical and scientific and research activities, in establishing a group of university teachers- idols worth following as well as in working in academic diplomacy which I have in my “ professional equipment.”
 
Your agenda includes construction and development of foreign relationships, which are very important from the point of view of strengthening position, and credit of the school. What is you priority in this field?
Academic life of every university includes activities, which exceed the borders of the state and the region. Our key area of interest is the European educational and researching area, which is based on common basis, values and standards. That is why I focus my attention to searching foreign partners for the cooperation and mutual support in pedagogical and scientific and research activities that move the border of the quality of processes and all outputs of the school. At present, the strongest tools are programs and grants of the European Union, which significantly support and finance these intentions.
From the point of view of students and pedagogues, the programme Erasmus is probably the most active. Its idea is to open the door to the world of education by support of mobility of students as well as university teachers within educational institutions. One of my main tasks is to choose suitable studying stays for the whole term or an academic year and short stays which are an outstanding opportunity to acquire new knowledge and practical experience, materials for students´ final works or new inspiration and topics for teachers´ work. Meanwhile, this is the way to create and build community, which can grow from the professional level into personal friendships, help and services in favour of other people, which I consider as a precious value.
The endeavour of universities is, of course, not to focus on Europe but it connects global potential in the world and attempts to use connection of an academic surrounding with the needs of real practice. Unfortunately, impacts and consequences of economic and financial crisis influenced the field of development of education and scientific and research activities. Cut- downs on budgets appeared, for example, in an interesting program Atlantis (with the support of the USA and the EU) for carrying out common studying programmes of American and European universities, which we planned to use in the near future. On the other hand, we have to perceive these difficult times as a challenge and opportunity for our institutions and program to be prepared profoundly which is in favour of students and future labour market. We must be optimists and things are not just black and white.
       
Programs and grants for development of skills of universities and research universities for creation of teams solving scientific tasks and modernization and development of technological base for the support of science and research take their irreplaceable place. Are you successful in this area?
I will give and example, the project for improvement and innovation of contents and forms of education in the studying program Security System Management” from august 2011. The agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport for structural funds of the European Union approved our application for irretrievable financial contribution in the amount of 629,714.70 Euros which will be used to improve the conditions for scientific and research activities. The strategic goal of this project is to adjust university education in the field of security needs of the knowledge- based society. In addition, its key idea is to set up automatic processes of quality measurement of university education and implementation of digitalized forms of education of our students. The project will be carried out from January 2012 to December 2013.
 
Which universities would you like to strengthen cooperation with? Moreover, when will the school be offered to foreign students and pedagogues?
I believe that in spite of the crisis, we will be able to develop planned educational activity with our foreign contractual partners. Our priorities are to build partnerships and create new relationships and new relationships with the focus on sense, quality of goals and contents of cooperation. Surely, we will use and offer our potential which is embodied in studying specialization “Protection of people and properties” which our school specialized on.
We lead the latest negotiations with academic authorities of the State University of New York Institute of Technology in the town of Utica, the USA and the University of Tomáš Baťa in Zlín (the Faculty of Applied Informatics) from the Czech Republic, within the preparation of common studying programme Technology Management in the second grade of university education. We plan to provide the first year of studying at our school and the second year at our partner school in the USA. Moreover, we are leading negotiations about the opportunity of our students, or other people to take part in common MBA- Master of Business Administration in Technology Management on-line program, within two courses ( subjects) are carried out by presence form in the USA again.
Since this winter term, our school has been opened to students from Poland who got a grant for the support of mobility from the programme Erasmus. The same situation is with the studying stays of university teachers from abroad. We will continue in these activities with other contractual partners primarily from the European Union.
 
How can the security management be characterized- what does it include? In addition, what is “hidden” under the academic title “engineer- security manager”?
The school deals with education, and training of professional, civic specialists for the field of security management that we perceive as a goal- orientated and focused activity. It is carried out in order to protect from and eliminate security risks and threats that can be against interests and properties of citizens, social groups and society. Practice needs professionally skilled creators of security policy of a chosen subject who know and can deal with management of risks and using them, they can react to undesirable events. They are able to prevent them up to the acceptable level of risk in the context of legal order of the state.
Thus, the main pillars of school preparation of such civic specialists are technical, legal and economic sciences in combination with practical training in our own specialized training in our training centre. Students use knowledge about principles, methods and processes of management in the public administration, prevention of criminality and work with youth, protection of economic interests of the enterprise, security in transport and logistics, protection of information (protection of personal data, protection of confidential facts, trade secret, etc.) and security of informational technologies.
 
Is your school a partner or a competitor for the state Academy of Police Corps in Bratislava? In which areas can you cooperate with them?
University preparation of security community for the resort of ministry of education, ministry of interior and private sector create a natural platform for cooperation a mutual exchange of experience of our institutions that often paid its most precious value- human life. Common base for mutually successful cooperation are protection interests – protection of citizens ´ lives and health, protection from anti- social aspects, protection of human rights and freedom, respect of the legal system of the Slovak Republic and the international security commitments of the states. Academic workers of universities use forms of specialists´ consultations, reviews, lecturing activities of chosen chapters, education of doctorates and common work with talented students. Participation in the scientific council of the school, in the union commission, common publication activities in individual dimensions of security, represent further formal and informal bounds primarily in studying the specialization of the protection of people and properties in which both schools operate. Our academic relationship is not perceived as competitive but as professional partnership. The Academy of Police Corps in Bratislava primarily focuses on investigation, repression, and our school on prevention. These facts create optimal conditions and solution to common scientific projects and support of other activities. For example, the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic supported our Summer Children’s University 2011 (From 6 to 22 July 2011) in the training centre in Kysak by a grant within the programme of prevention that is becoming more and more popular. It enabled us to address and spent time with 100 pupils with the goal to develop their security consciousness by a very interesting form. We can imagine even closer cooperation with children from families whose fathers died when serving in the Police Corps of the Slovak Republic. The Academy of Police Corps helps us very much in this area.
 
How do you evaluate the state of the security management and protection potential of the Slovak Republic against the outer and inner threats? Some Slovak politicians and specialist claim that it is in a poor condition…
The security system of the Slovak Republic represents multidimensional complex of subsystems that take part in establishing and guaranteeing outer and inner security. It consists of foreign- political, economic, protective, inner security, social, protective and ecological tools and their mutual connections. Inner goal of the security system of the Slovak Republic is to plan, organize, coordinate and control fulfilling the tasks, measurements and activities of individual subsystems and elements of the system.
The goal is to assure the state of the security of the state in critical situations at the times of peace and war, when using inner sources and tools of the state and international support where the core means to create effective and optimal functioning of the system. The outer meaning of the security management is to preserve and maintain the security of the state, inner security and order, prosperity, human rights and freedom, valuable life, cultural values and healthy environment and citizens at the times of stability- peace as well as critical situations during wars and war situations. The essence is formed by functional output in the level of state and civil security and solution to the issues of allies’ security on the other side. Outer security is an important assumption of inner security, progressive development of society, its prosperity, valuable and happy life of citizens. This is why it is necessary to pay adequate attention to our security and defence.
Constituted and created system of defence of the Slovak Republic is a part of security system of allies. Its base has national and alliance dimension and so it is the realization of national and alliance tasks and measurements, which is necessary to fulfil systematically, and continuously with the use of all available tools of public power and available powers.
At present, a scientific discussion and preparation of proposals of changes are being carried out in the security system of the state in order to overcome a long- term resort and legislative obstructions that prevent from the more efficient functioning of the system.
 
What is supposed to be done and what must be changed?
It is assumed that new legal definition of complex assurance of security of the Slovak Republic in order to be organized and manage critical situation as well as legal correction of activities of the government at the times of war and emergency and operation of the Security Council of the Slovak Republic. We expect that the security system of the state will fulfil its managing function, executive function for protective, defensive and rescuing activities as well as assuring function when carrying out security policy of the state. We all respect the fact that security is not obvious and not cheap. We consider prevention as cheaper than solution to consequences. Every day, when working, we should think more about critical situation at the time when the society is doing well and does not solve threats of death, property damage, natural disasters, etc. To assure security is the basic function and responsibility of the state that is not possible to carry over to other subject. That is why the choice of dividing sources from the public finances for individual sectors and complex assurance of the security of the state depends on political, professional and human responsibility of the state management that came from the results of the election. I reckon that it is time to get rid of anxiety in a long- term financing of citizens and state security while they sensibly perceive the complexity of economic, financial and social situation. Construction and development of military, police and civic abilities of the state in order to manage critical military and non- military situations require systematic and efficient solutions. A citizen and the society deserve it and obviously, they expect it.
 
Every year, Slovakia decreases its expenditures for defence and security. How far can it go? Where is the border of logical and financial tolerance of so- called cost – saving within public expenditures of the state?
Economy represents the base of the state defence. Dependence of creating defence of the state on economy is now much higher than in the past, as it equals possibilities of the economy of the state. Creation, maintaining and continual improvement of the system of defence along with the solution of issues of peaceful development of the society are daunting tasks. The society must limit and divide precious economic sources into peaceful and defensive ones and solve usual problems of choosing between military and peaceful expenditures.
The level of defence expenditures shows possibility of the state when forming the size and structure of armed force, number and quality of personnel, arming and equipment, material and technical assurance and the way of securing defence or management of the armed struggle. Back, the needs of defence influence the speed of the economic development of the state, the level of the GDP, employment, investment, payment balance, science and research. It means that the state must be at the peaceful time prepared for fulfilling their basic functions not only when defending independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, protection of life and properties of its citizens as well as basic social values in the form of defence of freedom and democracy in demanding conditions in case of military conflict or during various critical situations.
Fulfilling these tasks is provided by the Armed Forces of the state. In order to fulfil the tasks set, the government and parliament have to make a decision on allocation of sources and thus work out, based on the national budget, which part will be separated in favour of the Ministry of Defence. In addition, it has to show which part will be used for military forces and other parts of the ministry of defence, for administration needs, modernization and investment, soldiers´ income and wages of civic employees, mandatory deductions, energy, material, services, fuel, food, spare parts or purchase of new guns and weapons and modernization of present one. Approximately, we have to state that separation of the funds below the level of 1% GDP will not allow the resort of defence to fulfil all tasks successfully at the resort of defence of the state, international security commitments of the state and fulfilling assistant tasks in the territory of the state when protecting lives, health and properties of citizens and society. A commitment of the state of NATO at the level of 2% GDP is not necessary to mention at the times of crisis. I am for fulfilling the tasks and using the rights within the collective security that we have applied to.               
 
Is it possible to define the contents of citizens´ security, society and state? What should happen so that Slovakia invested more money in its security?
It is very difficult to define the level of security sufficiency, which is a very complex and complicated agenda worth at least nationwide disputes about priorities and political responsibilities for this area. Unfortunately, at the peace situation and non- crisis times, we tend to enjoy feeling of security and rules and we do not invest in “secure future”. The crisis then gets us together and we use all human, material, technical and financial resources available. We promise immediately to help remove consequences in a significant way and we assure technical and technological development of state rescue tool. Later on, we slow down in carrying out our intentions and we pay attention to (and finances) to “more important issues.” I think that floods, soil movements and so on should be enough for us for qualitative and quantitative creation of an integrated rescue system, military forces and armed crops of the stare and for fulfilling the function of the state: to assure security, protection of citizens and society and that nothing more serious could happen.
 
If we, for example, have a look at the area of civic protection, the system of military training has fallen apart in Slovakia, or for over 20 years, Slovak citizens (except for resorts of interior and defence) have not been trained and educated. If you ask politicians and clerks (regional as well) whether they know how shelters and gas masks equip the cities and towns for civilians, they are unable to answer…
We teach students that civic protection is a system of measurements focused on protection of life, health and property. They are mainly based on analysis of potential threats and passing precautions for eliminating risks of threat as well as setting up procedures and activities for eliminating their consequences of extreme events. Personally, I am for terminologically and content solution of the protection of citizens. Subjects at different levels of management such as the government, ministries, other concentrated bodies, district and offices in the seats of regions and district councils, self- governing regions, municipalities, legal entities and individuals at the extend set by the law. Unfortunately, the state does not use all facilities available in case of citizens’ preparation, for example within national educational system to provide suitable education to children at primary schools. We have given up military training of the citizens, which should form a platform for preparation for crises with participation of all parts of the integrated rescue system of the state, which has its representation in all the regions and could work as lecturers. Educational activities in the field of protection of citizens, however, must be accompanied by appropriate technical and technological background, which will enable real evacuation of citizens, protection from dangerous substances and other activities according to the character of a crisis. I think that majority of the assistants of our MPs have not gone though such system education, practical training and that is why they do not know real needs for protection of citizens. A lot of edification and patience will be required in terms of communication with MPs at various levels. Present state in citizens’ protection is a reflection of the security system that is its part. Again, we face choice between priority and responsibility…
 
You are the co- author of two university textbooks- Defence and crisis management in the public administration and Extremism as a society and citizens´ security threat. At school, you will be soon giving lectures within the subjects like theory of security, crisis management, risk management and protection from terrorism and extremism, the European security. What motivated you to focus on these areas?
I connected my theoretic knowledge and practical managerial experience with my colleagues who operate in police sciences what resulted in some works, which are, supposed to help our coming generation. Specialists from the Department of public administration and crisis management in public administration from the Academy of Police Corps in Bratislava being led by Professor Buzalka or other colleagues within doctoral studies, agreed with cooperation in favour of new security community. I really appreciate this opportunity that enable to study issues of fulfilling the tasks at the resort of defence from the nationwide and regional levels of the crisis management. Life forces you to do research in the field of citizens´ and society protection from negative phenomena as for example extremism. Specialists who have been dealing with these issues for a long time give a definition of extremists as people or groups of people who can be characterized by refusing valid legal and moral norms, high level of opinion and racial intolerance, with absence of material motivation and illegal acts with elements of aggression and brutality. These facts have led us to the project that analyses extremism as a security threat for society and citizens. In order to solve this specific issue, we will use analytical and synthetic method of doing research of anti- social phenomenon based on the method of critical thinking when processing facts that come from three key resources: the study of extremist scene, available literature and knowledge from abroad , studying extremist scenes, projects and legislative environment in the national environment, analysis of expert evaluation of specialists of the Police Corps of the Slovak Republic, the Police of the Czech Republic and authors´ own knowledge and experience. So far, we have gone through the first phase of monitoring and analysis of achieved results of other teams and soon we will start with our own research in the field.
There is a lot of work waiting for us. I am convinced that security sciences based on general basis of methodology of scientific work and practical sciences can play a significant role and contribute to the area of complex research of dimensions of security as well as within our fights against anti- social aspects such as extremism. Unfortunately, the Slovak Republic is influenced by the phenomenon that is why it must be a subject of permanent study and research by our security community. For example, we are thinking of establishing an Educational land research Centre of protection of human rights, extremism and criminality prevention in Košice. I believe that we will find a support and willingness to help this project. We are being led by desire to implement acquired experience mainly in the area of criminality prevention and work with youth. From my side, dealing with youth is perceived like a challenge and our duty to care for our future.
 
Who and what are the threats for Slovakia more- anti- Slovak right- winged extremists, anti- Christian religious fanatics and members of sects or organized groups committing economic criminality (white horses) and industrial espionage? Is it difficult to eliminate their activities and influence?
Concerning immaterial values and spiritual wealth, the main threat is probably activities of radical right. Activities refusing traditional values in families, society initiate intolerance, discrimination, violation of human rights, sects and movement must be paid attention to by each responsible and legal state. In terms of material values, informal economy and economic criminality are as harmful as facts I mentioned above. Both levels require professional, human, systematic and complex approach. An active and responsible individual, state and international community has to play their role- in favour of all of us. It is an extremely daunting fight but we have to fight against it.   
 
Who is doc. Ing. Miroslav Kelemen, PhD.
He was born in Lučenec in 1966. He studied at the Secondary Military Grammar School in Banská Bystrica and graduated from the University of Military Aviation of SNU, Košice (at present the Faculty of Aeronautics of the Technical University in Košice) where he acquired the qualification of a pilot of ultra- sound aircrafts. He began his professional and pedagogical career as a transport pilot of the Aviation Regiment of Headquarters of the Czechoslovak Ministry of National Defence and later as a teacher of flying- the commander of transport squads of the Educational and Training Aviation centre Košice. For five years, he was a senior inspector of transport aviation- a pilot of the Headquarters of the 3rd Air Force and Air Defence Corps in Zvolen. He cooperated with an acrobatic group White Albatrosses from Košice as a pilot- navigator for three seasons. He was a deputy of a commander of aviation wing Prešov and for almost three years, he was a commander of Air Force Base in Prešov. Within academic positions, he was a member and pro- rector of the Military Aviation Academy in Košice (2000- 2002), a member and director of the National Security Course  in the National Defense Academy of Marshall A. Hadik(2005- 2007) and a senior military consultant of the Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic for military schools- a manager of a shift. From September 2008 to 31 July 2011, he was a rector of the Academy of Armed Forces of General Milan Rastislav Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš. He was an active member of the Military Council of the Commander of General Staff of Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic, he was a member of editorial rooms of scientific and specialized magazines, scientific councils of the University of Defence in Brno, the Academy of Police Corps in Bratislava, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín and a chairman of the scientific council of the Academy of Armed Forces of General Milan Rastislav Štefánik in Liptovský Mikuláš. He is an instructor of aviation training on aircrafts and helicopters, a graduate of parachuting training and training of aircrew in survival and a holder of an honorary degree Meritorious Military Pilot of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic.
 
Photoreport
A Wooden Church in Kostrino
It is located in the village of Kostrino, approximately 60 kilometres in the north- east from Uzhgorod near a well- known ski resort Krasija and approximately 25 kilometres from the Slovak – Ukrainian border crossing Ubľa- Malyj Bereznyj in Carpathian Ruthenia.
 
Róbert Matejovič
Photo: the author
 
It represents a significant monument of Ukrainian (Ruthenian) folk wooden architecture. During the 20th century, its picture appeared in many popular publications and books. The church is 25 meters long and 7 meters wide, its tower is 14 meters high. It was originally built in the year 1645 in the village of Sianky Turka in Haličina (at present it is Lvov’s Area). In 1703, it was replaced to Kostrino and located at the place where it is standing now. It used to be sacred to St Nicolaus and it was administered by the Greek- Catholic Church. At present, it is under administration of the Orthodox Church and it is sacred to Blessed Mary Virgin. It was partially reconstructed in 1761. Its four- level iconostasis was repainted in 1950. The most precious icon is an icon of St Michael Archangel from the 18th century.   
 
Life in Stužica
It is a gateway to Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathian Mountains- Uzhanský National Nature Park, which is in neighbourhood with the Slovak national park Poloniny.
 
Róbert Matejovič
Photo: the author
 
From this Ruhenian village which will attracts you thanks to its wooden houses, modest life style and two oldest oaks in Ukraine (they are between 1100 and 1200 years old), there is a few- hour- long journey leading to Kremenec (1,221 metres above the sea level), the common border point of three states- Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland.
 
During the First World War, the Russian Army fought against the Austro- Hungarian Army for the area that became the part of Czechoslovakia in between 1918 and 1939- the Carpathian Ruthenia. The entire area was the place of fights during the Second World War between the German Wehrmacht and Soviet Red Army, which can be proved by new and new findings of mines and artillery ammunition. At present, it is a place for illegal migrants who are trying to cross the Ukrainian- Schengen border to get to Poland or to Slovakia. Recently, Ukrainian border police caught three people from Georgia and even some refugees from Somalia…
In Stužica, there is an interesting Ruthenian festival of milk and cheese called the Milky River, which presents domestic production of popular dairy products and drinks and modest but healthy country life style. There were only fields, woods, meadows, cows, goats and sheep, which are the only livelihoods for the inhabitants who do not commute to work in Uzhgorod. Those, who have to travel, get up at four and walk for two hours to get to the railway station and go by train to the capital city of the Carpathian Ruthenia. They come from work at about eight in the evening. Again it takes them two hours to walk back home.   
 
Investstory
Centre where you will not get wet
The Shopping Centre Zemplín is the most visited place in Michalovce. Its activities are much better than traditional offer of the town centre in the pedestrian zone and bring culture and entertainment into the region.
 
Justice
Reputation of Radičova´s government
The Resolution of the European Association of Judges criticizes restrictions of independence of judicial power and inappropriate influence of the political power on the Slovak justice.
 
The European Union
The economic governance that the EU needs
“Yes, the eurozone crisis could have been handled better,” says Guy Verhofstadt, but the real crisis facing Europe is about economic policy governance.
 
 
 Towards a New Model of Federal State
„A European democratic government is necessary to overcome the limits of a policy of pure austerity. An austerity policy without a growth policy is a suicide for the European Union, “writes Guido Montani, a Vice-President of the Union of European Federalists.
 
Interview
They want to stop Czechization of Moravia
“Moravia must have its government, its own parliament. Its development does not meet expectations and ideas about peaceful and secure life citizens in Moravia had after the year 1989, says Milan Trnka, a chairman of the political party “ Moravané”.  
 
Survey
To which statehood should the Slovaks belong to more? To Great Moravia or Pribina´s Principality of Nitra and Principality of Lower Pannonia?
 
Abroad
The UN wants a new member
After 64 years, Palestine has achieved so longed justice that was blocked by Israel and the USA. The international and moral pressure on the Jewish state is increasing. Will it finally respect the resolution of the UN and withdraw its occupational army?
 
Reflexion
Why did Jews not accept Christ (Part III)?
 “Learning of rabbis´ is gradually being gathered on the side of Jesus opponents and they create their own explanation of Testament and Prophets. There is a wall growing around Torah, i.e. Talmud?
 
History
Sport stars overseas
A source of Slovak talents for America baseball was mainly Youngstown in Ohio. We also found Slovak talents in basketball and box.
 
Culture
Slovaks do not like being told the truth
“During socialism, we were afraid of Russian tanks, nowadays, we are afraid of ourselves,” says Marián Labuda, an artist and a member of a Drama Group of the Slovak National Theatre.
 
Art
The Image of the Woman in Photography
 
Róbert Matejovič
Photo: Photo Galeria Prostir
 
On September 9, 2011, the Ukrainian city of Lvov held the sixth year of prestigious tour- the International Salon of Art Photography called “With Love to Women”. The author of this unusual and interesting project, which also supports the development of culture, tourism and cooperation among nations, is Yuriy Titovets, a reputable Ukrainian photographer and a director of Prostir Gallery.
 
529 best and most beautiful photographs are presented within the exhibition salon and a special catalogue. A commission of specialists judged 3,379 photographs by 448 photographers from 58 states. According to Yuriy Titovets everyone seeks stability, reliability, and security, which mould certainty and a feeling of comfort. Such is our nature. We have especially felt this need in the past few years as we have faced tension in all aspects of life. Having reached a feeling of confidence and self-sufficiency, one craves beauty, something pleasant for the eyes and dear for the soul. It is every person’s instinct to associate the feeling of comfort with the image of a mother. During life a sublimation of this childhood image takes place, but the Feminine Yin remains attractive and magnetic no matter what its external form is. This is the way we are created. One’s yearning for exalting a Woman is realized through art, and modern photography is not an exception. Therefore, we have recently seen a huge interest of the photographers all over the world in the image of the Woman in photography, as well as a rapidly growing interest of the society in the International Salon of Art Photography “With love to Women.” The social constituent is the key peculiarity of our Salon, which gives us a right to consider it as being a big culture and social project. Thanks to Salon’s resources, we implement various charity programs targeted at caring for women and children’s health and at securing a happy childhood. This is the great mission of “With love to Women.”
 
Sport
He tried to feed a good wolf
Mark Messier claims that a good leader must not be an egoist. “It is good when he can answer the question what he does for a team and does not think what the team does for him.”

 

Dimenzie No.5/2020Merkel's hypocrisy towards Russia
Brussels is pushing the EU into an abyss
Beckov Castle
Hungary at the gates of victory?
The beauty and value of traditional clothing
He does not feel Russophobia
How do you comment on the interference of the EU and Slovakia in the internal affairs of Belarus?
"Therapeutic Education of C...Read more
Dimenzie No.4/2020Belarus wants Lukashenko, not the West
Horný Šariš in the MAKOS network
The Spring of the Krupa River
Knight´s Ozalj
The Nazis were defeated mainly by Soviet citizens
New Pan-European Order
New Challenges for Romania
What are the strengths and weaknesses of Prime Minister Matovič?
Let's get psychologists out of school<...Read more