May 2011

What truth will General Mladic reveal?
How does the current psychiatry define depression?
Which treatment methods are used there?
What is the length of hospitalization?
Who is MUDr. Eva Pálová, PhD.?
From a chef to a passionate ethnographer
Original presentation of Medzimurje
The end of the dollar’s dominance is approaching
Good News for Slovak Judges
Project POL - LOC
We have to support young talents
Why did Jews not accept Christ? (Part I)
At the Threshold for Palestinian Statehood
Slovak World Values
Slovak Roots in American Dream
Legend in American Navy
He speaks using his own body
Slovak dream has faded away
Demitra would like to help ice- hockey

What truth will General Mladic reveal?
Pro- integration orientated Serbia would like to make its way to the European Union faster, which is paradoxically being ruined by euro scepticism, economic and financial crisis, military and political dependence on the USA. It seems as if naive Serbia has fallen asleep and is heading into a community of states which helped to disintegrate former Yugoslavia and whose politicians and financial groups are also responsible for death and suffering of many civilians in West Balkan. Compared to Serbian, Croatian, Muslim and Albanian “war criminals”, however, they are not being prosecuted and sentenced by anyone.
Serbia would like to become a member of the “international European project” with strong centralism of Brussels and Franco- German directoire which can fall apart as fast as former communistic Yugoslavia or later Miloševič´s Serbian- Montenegrin Federation (Little Yugoslavia). Present Tadič´s and Cvetkovič´s integration policy is waiting for an official invitation from Brussels as a new candidate for the membership so that they could start pre- integration negotiations with Brussels. With clerks, power centre and with member states which participated in bloody disintegration of Yugoslavia and territorial integrity of Serbia… However, the invitation that is being eagerly awaited has not arrived yet. And Bosnian and Serbian leaders such as Radovan Karadzić and Ratko Mladić are in prison of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). This Tribunal refuses to investigate war criminals and soldiers from the USA and NATO member states (for example in former Yugoslavia, in present Serbia and in so-called Kosovo Republic) or serious suspicions concerning the trade of Kosovo- Albania mafia and former Tači´s Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) with human organs of captured Serbians.
If we take a closer look at the history of relationships between Serbia and the EU, Serbia and the USA over the past ten years, only Serbs have always been adjusting to west powers and their powerful economic pressure. Mainly Serbian politicians have to cope with injustice, they just have to listen, are not supposed to speak too much and pretend that Milosević, the civil war and bombing of Yugoslavia just belong to the past, ask West and the USA for compensations and reparations. Even though Serbia already has an image of a modern and pro- European democratic and reliable country, we cannot ignore the fact that it can pay a very high price for its so- called European integration policy. It can slowly but surely lose its political, national, economic, cultural and safety pride and sovereignty.
General Ratko Mladić is a very good example. How fast he was discovered and captured in Lazarevo… it is as mysterious and surprising as a sudden attack and murder of bin Laden in Pakistan and not in Afghanistan where American soldiers had searched “ every cave and hole in order to catch him, kidnap him and sentence him”, as George Bush Junior used to declare…
However, having compared General Mladić to Slobodan Milosević, no one had to kidnap Mladić violently to the American base in Bosnia and Herzegovina and then to Haag. Moreover, his surrender is not accompanied by any violent incident not fatal revenge as it was in case of dead Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjič, Bosnian Serb, who was shot by a former representative of Red Berets- Special Serbian Military Police from two hundred meters in March 2003. Officially, it was a revenge for Djindjić Red Berets- Special Serbian Military Police fight against organized crime and gangs having been hidden by Milošević´s regime, and unofficially it was a revenge for his betray of “Yugoslavian constitution and president” who was illegally sent to Haag where he died later.
“Hunting” for General Mladić began in July 1996 when ICTY (with R. Karadzic) accused and sentenced him without him being presented. At the time, Claude Jorda, a French judge, based his resolution on a lot of misleading truths and disinformation. According to the interests of West and USA policies, there was made up a one- side myth of misleading truth concerning Srebrenica Massacre which needlessly increased hatred among ethnical groups and religions in new Bosnia and Herzegovina. There were battles around Srebrenica for over three years. According to Mladić, 1,200 Serbs and approximately 2,000 Muslims died when trying to get to Tuzla and Kladnje. “Present myths about dead Muslims (first 6,000, later 8,000) do not correspond with reality, many dead bodies are still missing. Serbian specialists were not allowed to take part in exhumations. However, nobody in the west has ever mentioned death of about 3,000 Serbs killed in the region, no one has ever published reports by Dutch soldiers of UNPROFOR that there was no genocide,” writes Professor Rajko Doleček in his book Dialogues with General Mladić, he is a diabethologist of Czech and Serbian origin who lives and works in Ostrava.
“I am the third generation of Serbs who did know their fathers as they died in the war when their sons were very young,” Ratko Mladić told him. He was born in Bosnian Mountains near the town of Kalinovik in 1943. His father Nedjo died in 1945 in the battle against Croatian Fascistic organization “Ustašovci” during the genocide of Serbs and a part of Muslims from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
“The beginning of Yugoslavian tragedy in 1991 got lieutenant –colonel Mladić at the base in Skopje. Due to deserting of Albanians, Croatians, Slovenians and Muslims from the Yugoslav People´s Army (Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija – JNA), the 9th military troop, which protected the area of Srbska Krajina in Croatia, was weakened and became a Serbo- Montenegrin and Macedonian troop. In June 1991, the commanders of the JNA sent Mladić to Knina to renew fighting ability of the 9th troop in order to eliminate endangering of the areas with purely Serbian majority from the side of Croatian para- military gangs, the Serbian Police Force of the Ministry of the Interior (MUP) and ZNG (Zbor narodne garde- Croatian National Guard). He protected them from plundering, killing and expelling of Serbian citizens in the region where elderly people still remembered massacres of Serbians in Ustaša´s Croatia during the war in the years 1941- 1945.
At the time of Mladić´s arrival in Knina, there had already been fights in Croatia as well as blockade of barracks of the JNA.
According to the prepared plans, supplies of electricity, water and food were carried out. Explosives destroyed Serbian houses, there was a big U (Ustaša) on them, smaller troops of JNA were attacked as well as Serbian civilians… This was also encouraged by Germany, Austria, Italy and partially from Vatican. Mladić declared that: “ Enemy is everyone who shoots our soldiers, who stops water and electricity supplies, who provokes them and blocks them.” JNA did not start with this hostile approach but Croatian para- military troops, MUP and ZNG which began with hostility and demonstrations of ethnical hatred,” writes Professor Rajko Doleček in his book.
After eliminating the danger for Serbs in Krajina, Mladić was sent to Bosnia and Herzegovina (BaH). After a one- side declaration of the independence of BaH (April 6, 1992), he became the commander-in chief of a new Army of Republica Srbska in BaH. At the time Muslim para- military gangs began to destroy and kill in Serbian villages. “ Ivanišević´s Chronicle of Our Cemetery writes about it (1994). Finally, Serbian troops took over the initiative. Under their pressure (some para- military gangs cause a lot of violence) Muslim citizens started to run away from East Bosnia to the towns of Srebrenica, Tuzla, Goražde, Žepa which became the areas protected by the UN in 1993” under the conditions of demilitarization, which, however, was never met. For example, the 28th Muslim division (approximately 10,000 men) remained in Srebrenica. Being led by Násir Orič, they carried out homicidal expeditions to Serbian villages in East Bosnia, they plundered and destroyed almost two thousand of them. The number of murdered civilians reached approximately 2,000. The last “marauding expedition was held” in June 1995 before VRS captured Srebrenica. General Mladić had between 80,000 and 90,000 motivated soldiers available who protected 1,500 kilometres of curving front. From spring 1994, his enemy, Croatian and Muslim armies had 200,000 soldiers armed and were being supported by Americans, Germans and Islamic states. Until West propaganda started to libel charismatic general, he had been very popular in Pentagon. Mladić had very good relationships with commanders of UNPROFOR and generals Wahlgren and Briquemont who quickly resigned due to dishonest procedures of west politicians and pathetic disinformation of west media.
General complained to me at the time that no one had ever publicized that Army of Republica Srbska protected thousands of escaping Croatians. “My soldiers protected between 40,000 and 45,000 Croatians, civilians and soldiers who were escaping from Muslin soldiers in 1993 in Travnik, Konjice, Zavidovič, Kuprese (where a lot of Croatians used to live). We provided them food and medical treatment in our hospitals.” Rescue of thousands of Croatians was carried out during the violent Croatian-Muslim war (1993- 1994) where many civilians died. Mladić did not take a revenge against Croatians for their attack in the valley of the river Sáva and around Kupres in summer 1992 when the plundered and damaged Serbian villages there.
General firmly insisted on good behaviour to captured Muslims and Croatians. He cursed all the leaders who let themselves convince to lead brother- killing civil- ethnical and religious war. “Americans and Clinton sent murdering Mujahideens in Bosnia whose goal was to teach Bosnian Muslims how to kill mercilessly and fight according Koran.” American brought units of Al- Kaida in BaH,” states Professor Doleček in his book.
According to two points of prosecutor MTJ, General Mladić is accused of genocide against more than 7,000 Muslims in Srebrenica and other eight Bosnian villages, from persecutions, killing, deportations, violent movement, terrorism and attacks against civilians or taking hostages. In the initial speech he described these accusations as monstrous and awful. It will be interesting to observe whether Ratko Mladić will ask to call Helmut Kohl, Tony Blair, Bill Clinton, former commanders of NATO troops and UNPROFOR or Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission in the years 1985- 1995 to come to Haag.
Serbian Prosecution for War Crimes wants to interrogate Ratko Mladić as well. They have already asked the office of ICTY for that. They would like to investigate information about crimes committed by Muslim troops under control of Násir Orič against Serbian civilians and prisoners in East Bosnia from April 1992 to June 1995.
Robert Matejovic, editor-in-chief
There is Euforia in Nová Lesná in the High Tatras- the first specialized psychiatric hospital in Slovakia.
The most expensive brain disease
“Depression can be cured. It is important so that the psychological problems are solved at the psychiatry. People often search for the solution at internists or neurologists, “claims Eva Pálová, a well- known Slovak psychiatrist.
Róbert Matejovič
Photo: the author
PX: While the 20th century is often called the century of anxiety (distress), the 21st  century will be a century of depression. The latest statistics show that depression has already taken over for example cardio-vascular diseases and heart attacks in the chart of the most risky and serious diseases. The World Bank and the World Health Organization forecast that by 2010, depression will hold the second place just after cardio- vascular diseases. Hardly anyone knows that in 2006 depression in the EU required 1 % of GDP and thus became the most expensive brain disease as such. Some critics of contemporary modern psychiatry, for example scientologist, however claim that depression is not a mental disease but only natural disorder of chemical or bio- chemical balance in brain, body and soul of a man which his not necessary to cure using drugs.
Mrs Pálová, what is it really like, why does psychiatry deal with depression or “less serious” psychic problems of people which have not been known before as mental diseases or disorders?
Surely, depression is not only “the invention of modern era”. All in all, the term
 “melancholy”, which is now used to define one of the worst forms of depression dates back to Hippocrates who used this word “ melancholic” over 2,000 years ago to describe one of the four basic human temperaments (natures)- a man reserved, gloomy, not in good mood (fatigue), hardly communicating…
However, each era brings its specific problems and psychic problems became a common part of our modern era. Due to the frequency of their occurrence and their negative influence on a human’s life, we, psychiatrists just cannot stay aside. Psychiatry has almost become a natural part of television, press; radio broadcasting and sometimes it might seem we talk about psychical problems too much. Nevertheless, the truth is rather different as despite significant progress psychiatry and psychical disorders are still taboo, which is even worse because is it considered as a kind of sigma for a man who is trying to cure his or her psychical disorder.
The latest researches point out that occurrence of depression in some parts of Slovakia reaches over 20 % in common population (EPID, 2006) and we do not take into consideration other mental disorders (anxiety, alcoholism, schizophrenia, aphrenia). They are all subjects of psychiatry which is an independent medical branch dealing with diagnostics, treatment, prevention and research of these disorders.
How does the current psychiatry define depression?
Many people mistake depression with bad mood, ill- temper or pessimism. The fact that they feel miserable or upset for a few days does not necessarily have to mean anything. In order to diagnose depression we use internationally valid criteria of diseases (MKCH 10)according to which the status of sadness and anxiety has to last for at least two weeks when a man loses any joy and pleasure from usual activities and interests. These statuses are connected with general inappetence. A man does not get up of the bed, does not care what to eat and very often neglects basic hygiene. He or she does not go to work or searches for company of other people. He/ she is not interested in anything at all. There are accompanying symptoms, somatic (physical) symptoms like change of weight, headaches, pain in the chest or insomnia. Patients suffering from depression usually wake up very early at about four o’clock and cannot fall asleep again. They are usually very tired and fatigue in the morning and on the contrary, in the evening they are more active, vivid and often without any signs of depressing mood. Their libido often decreases what leads to problems with a partner or worries that a partner does not like him/ her any more. Suicidal ideas are often typical for this disease. The most significant is the fact that approximately 15% of patients with depression really commit suicide. It is a disease of a body and a soul, its symptoms are not only of psycho. Depression occurs more with women than men. While women suffer more from problems concerning their families or health, for men a loss of job and social status are the main traumas.
What causes such an increase in people suffering from depression in the society?
There are many factors as etiopathogenesis of depression is multifactor as well. Apart from global factors such as stress, over- technologized way of life, significant social changes we also have to take local factors into consideration. In Slovakia, a part of the population faces a great change. In the past, people were used to a certain feeling of security, at present they have to face existential problems, which they are not used to and many of them experience various anxieties, feelings of uncertainty and loneliness.
Every year we hospitalize approximately 1,300 patients at our clinic. Other 5,000 come to casualty wards. Increase in psychiatric examinations is, however, not only world wide but also Slovak- wide problem- mostly there is an increase in anxiety and stress connected with disorders, depressive disorders and organic mental disorders which are an essential part of aphrenia. What is rather alarming, is an increase in number of patients who are under 18. For example the examinations with the diagnosis of depressive disorder reached its historical maximum in Slovakia in 2008. Depression is one of the common psychical disorders in the world as well. Recurrent depression takes up to 17 per cent of the socio- economic “pie chart” in the age group between 15 and 45. So it is a mental disorder that is one of two most expensive ones for the society.
Isn’t depression like a modern civilization disease and the answer to globalization, suppressing of original individualism and personal freedom, answer to spiritual and value crisis in society in which only the individual who is rich and able to make money anyhow and at any expanses is considered as the only successful one?
Well, the exact reason for depression cannot be defined precisely yet. However, we have some knowledge from the fields of biology (genetic factors, effects of stress), immuno-neuro- endocrine (changes of activities of an axis hypothalamus- hypothesis – epinephris) and neuro- chemical (disorder of synaptic transmission). All these areas overleap each other and are mutually connected.
How does depression appear? Is it an emotional shock or reaction of brain to various impulses- good and bad news, human relations, work and family relations, problems, misfortunes and conflicts?
For a few decades, the greatest attention has been paid to neuro- chemical hypothesis which were an excellent tool for understanding the meaning and function of basic neurotransmitters systems (serotonin, dopamine and noradrenalin) which regulation participated in causing depression. They are chemical substances by which signals are transmitted from one nerve cell to another one. We do not know exactly what causes their insufficient amount, however, the present psychiatric science has already traced in details mechanism of the influence of antidepressants- from pre- synaptic effect through their influence on the level of these mediators in synaptic cleft and postsynaptic receptors to neurotrophic factors (BDNF).
We know that the factors causing depression also include particular generic predisposition, long- term stress, acute stressful events, for example a death of a close person, divorce, having been made redundant. However, there are many psychological hypothesis and theories which explain the reasons for depression- they deal with, for instance, influence of bringing up in the family (high demands and criticism of parents), cruelty or sexual abuse, numerous problems with relationships or in a job. Cognitive and behavioural models also play a role in the emergence of depression which is often a based on a limited but very effective psychotherapy. It is necessary to point out that individual theories of depression emergence do not exclude each other but they complement each other. Depression includes mechanisms both biological and psychological. In any case, it is encouraging that it can be cured.
When is a psychiatrist sure that the patient suffers from depression?
 If the symptoms of the disease remain most of the days in a fortnight interval before the examination at the doctor’s. Most of the time of this interval is dominated by decrease in interest in usual everyday activities and hobbies, or by depressive mood. In such case we are talking about clinical depression.
It is a paradox that even though one symptom is enough to identify this diagnosis, people usually search for help at the doctor for the side effects of the depression such as headache, insomnia, disorexia, pressure on the chest ( so-called cardial oppression), stomach ache, pain in joints and spine. Another symptom that is so-called recurrent (repeating) depression is the information given by a patient that he/ she has already overcome similar status.
When do people find out that they suffer from depression?
Unfortunately, many come to the psychiatrist after a few months or years after the first episode of depression. They are either forced by their surrounding when other people realize the changes in a man’s behaviour and his activities or they are “ lucky” and they come to a specialist in medicine who will notice that a patient changes moods and that the examinations and their results do not confirm problems with spine, heart or stomach.
However, conservative Slovak society considers visiting a psychiatrist a kind of a shame, a stigma. Depression is still understood as a kind of a “ spiritual weakness”, we often come across patients who blame themselves that they are not strong enough and do not fight against it as it is still a wide spread opinion mainly noticeable in smaller towns. In larger cities, there is a higher degree of anonymity which helps people to overcome their fears and abusiveness. It is important to solve psychiatric problems at psychiatry. People often search for help at internists or neurologists. It is the same as if a patient with a toothache went to urologist or orthopaedist. If someone suffers from long- term psychical problems, he/ she should not underestimate or overestimate it. People often suffer from banal problems which they are ashamed of and try to hide them. It is a mistake. As majority of them can be solved. If psychical problems have not been solved for a long time, they can grow in such intensity that they will limit a person in his/ her everyday life, for example a person will start being afraid of travelling by bus or use an elevator…
And that is the reason why Slovakia joined the European Campaign called European Day of Depression (EDD) which is held every year on the first of October. This campaign has always a different key topic. It contributes to inform general public better but also medical workers- non- psychiatrists about problems of early diagnostics and adequate treatment of depression. We are glad and thank for the support we have been given by the Ministry of Health Care to organize the EDD for over three years. The event is organized under the auspices of the Minister of Health Care.
The crucial motive of the EDD this year is: Depression can be cured and defeated!” It is also a message to all the people who suffer from depression and often lose their courage not to give up and try to fight depression and if it is not a winning battle, just try to make it equal at least.
Let take a closer look at the depression, does it have its stages?
Depressive disorder usually begins between the age of 25 and 35 (Since the Second World War, the age of people suffering from depression has been decreasing) and it has a tendency to return even though a patient took the right treatment. Mild and light form of depression can be characterized by temporary changes in mood which does not prevent a person from doing regular thing, continue working or other activities. A man just feels that he is not in his shoes... This form does not require treatment using drugs, a consultation or psychotherapy with a specialist are just enough.
The second serious form of depression has more symptoms and it usually intervenes in everyday life of a person who has to force himself into activity but on the other hand he is still able to force himself to do so that he could lead everyday life. This form, however, requires intervention of a psychiatrist and pharmacological treatment using “a pill” and psychotherapy. Sometimes, this forms requires hospital treatment.
Serious forms of depression include psychotic symptoms, for example depressive delusions or hallucinations and suicidal tendencies. A patient is usually convinced that there is no point in living any longer, that he is a burden for the society, firm or family. Occasionally, we meet women that are unable to look after their families and do housework, they cannot force themselves they cannot eat, clean their teeth, they have feeling they are redundant and their husbands or children do not want them any more. They think they are a burden and that committing suicide is the only solution, they often think of leaving their place in a family to another better woman that will be more capable and will look after children and family. Treatment in hospital is inevitable in such cases as the patient does not cooperate with his/ her doctor or surrounding.
Can a person be cured from depression? Many people are afraid of psychiatric treatment, they do not trust it. Medicaments and drugs are addictive and dangerous. What do you think of it?
Yes, 50 % of patients are successfully cured after the first episode of depression when taking the right treatment. After third and fourth episode, it is almost 90 % probability that it is a so- called recurrent form of depression. In practice we often experience the fact that the treatment is terminated too early or there is a tendency to decrease the amount of antidepressants too quickly. It is often determined by wrong conviction that antidepressants are addictive, which is not the truth. People exchange antidepressants with anxiolytics (often benzodiazepines), which can be addictive when being taken for a long time. The most efficient treatment of depression is a combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy, either individual or group (however, it is hardly available in distant areas).
How do you treat medium and serious depressions? Isn’t it really possible without drugs?
It would be really complicated to treat medium serious and serious depressions without drugs. It is usually a group of patients with suicidal tendencies and there is a high risk of committing a suicide. It is unethical not to treat a serious form of a depression. Hardly anyone knows that according to the data from the year 2006, there is ten times more probable chance for the citizens of the EU to die of committing suicide than of HIV.
When starting the treatment, patients and their surrounding should be informed that the antidepressants will begin to work in 10 or 14 days. Improvement can be demonstrated in different ways, depending on each individual- some people have better mood, some do not have headache, pain in joints or spine. Treatment of one episode of depression lasts for between six and nine months, then the dosage of antidepressants is decreased and the drugs are totally excluded within a year if it was the first episode and the result is a quality remission, i.e. return to normal way of life. If it is a repeated episode or depression was really serious, for example with attempt to commit suicide, the length and way of treatment is set individually according to the status of a patient.
Why don ´t antidepressants cause patient’s addiction?
Because their effect is different from alcohol, nicotine, analgesics, hypnotics a benzodiazepines (bromazepan, diazepam) which may cause addiction. Human body does not create tolerance to antidepressants; it is not possible to increase the dosage in order to achieve the same effect. Effect is mediated by neurotransmitters in brain.
What will happen if a patient stops taking antidepressants? Isn’t he threatened by a so-called syndrome of discontinuing drugs? Will depression come back?
As I mentioned, treatment of one episode should last between 6 and 9 months in case it is the first episode of depression. Only after that, it is possible to approach to gradual discontinuing of taking antidepressants. In case of patients who suffer from recurrent depression, the treatment should last longer, often a few years as these patients are endangered by regression of depression. Unfortunately, in practice we often meet this phenomenon- a patient cuts down on the amount of drugs he takes too early, very often they stop taking drugs at all in spite of psychiatrist’s warning that it is inadequate and unsuitable form of treatment.
Majority of modern antidepressants (SSRI, SNRI) have a unique mechanism of effect- they have an effect as a kind of a valve on so-called re- uptake bump through which neurotransmitters produced by neurons are taken back in nerve cell which are released into synaptic cleft between two neurons.
Nowadays, we already know that when suffering from depression the number of transmitters is lower in the synaptic cleft, it is not necessary for them to get back to pre-synaptic neuron and thus did not transmit the information to post- synaptic neuron. That is why antidepressants work as inhibitors of this re-uptake bump which helps to keep higher number of neurotransmitters in this cleft and thus improve brain activity. AT present we are able to prove it by numerous modern depicting techniques as for example magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography. Simply said that as it is rather common to do gamagraphy of thyroid when there is hypothyroidism, after successful treatment of depression we can make, as I often joke, “a photo” of your depression when in the picture we are able to show brain activity during and after depression.
I heard that recently the first private psychiatric hospital in Slovakia began to operate in Nová Lesná. It is called Euforia. So you know about it? What does it specialize on?
Euforia is a specialized facility for treatment of psychical disorder in a beautiful surrounding of the High Tatras. It specializes on treatment of disorders that does not require a regime of a so- called closed ward, i.e. in case of depressions, anxiety, post- traumatic stress disorders, panic disorders, phobias, obsessional- compulsive disorders, neurotic disorders, addictions and bipolar affective disorders. I was glad that they asked me for help and advice when establishing and creating it as a specialized facility of this kind was missed in Slovakia.
Hospital Euforia provides accommodation and catering at the level of a four star wellness hotel. A patient or a client can decide whether he/ she will be hospitalized in a single room or in a double room. The hospital provides accommodation to a person accompanying a patient in case it is appropriate and helpful for the treatment.
Which treatment methods are used there?
The team of qualified psychiatrists, psychologists, physiotherapists and other therapists help patients to overcome mental problems by psychotherapy, complex approach and where it is necessary, by pharmacological treatment. The hospital has modern equipment. Apart from transcranial magnetic stimulation (r TMS), it offers 24- hour monitoring of sleep. It enables doctors to identify disorders of sleeping cycle which is usually typical for majority of psychical problems.
Apart from group and individual psychotherapies, there are numerous physiotherapeutic procedures (magneto therapy, ultrasound, electrotherapeutics, paraffinic wraps and fully equipped fitness centre). For an extra fee, there are massages, peat wraps, sauna, Jacuzzi, a tennis court so that patients have enough opportunities to spend their free time.
Compared to general hospitals, this hospital attempts to provide complex services so that a patient feels better not only from the psychical point of view but also physically, so that he has a lot of facilities how to spend his free time. Self- payers are guaranteed full discretion as well as their privacy is fully respected as well.
What is the length of hospitalization?
Approximately three weeks, in case of self- payers, it depends on an agreement. It is possible to start treatment based on the recommendation of surgery psychiatrist, psychologist, GP or without recommendation, just based on the examination carried out by our doctors.                                   
Who is MUDr. Eva Pálová, PhD.?
She was born in Košice; she graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at Pavol Jozef Šafárik´s University in Košice (Lekárska fakulta UPJŠ- LF UPJŠ). She has been working at the First Psychiatric Clinic of LF UPJŠ and at L. Pasteur’s University hospital since finishing university. She began as a secondary doctor, later she was an assistant. She became a head of a clinic in 2003. She began teaching at Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of LF UPJŠ in 1988. In 1993, she received a grand from the Swedish Royal institute for a stay there at the Psychiatric clinic Karolinsa Institutet of hospital Daderyd in Stockholm where she dealt with obsessional- compulsive disorder. In 2005, she was a host professor at Toronto University and at St Joseph’s Healthcare and McMaster University in Hamilton in Canada. In 2007, she was appointed a scientific researcher at the Centre for Mental Health Research in Bedfordshire in cooperation with the University of Cambridge in Great Britain. Between the years 2006 and 2008, she was the main specialist of the Ministry of Healthcare of the SR for psychiatry, since 2004, she has been the vice president of the European Union of Medical Specialists (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes). She was a chairwoman and still is a member of the board of directors of the Specialized Treatment Psychiatric Institute in Predná hora, she is a grant for post gradual education with the Slovak Healthcare University in Bratislava, at the Children´ s Psychiatric Hospital in Hraň (East Slovakia) and a specialist- grant for psychotherapy for the Slovak psychotherapeutic society at the First Psychiatric Clinic UNLP.
She is a member of the Psychiatric Association of Slovak Medical Association, specialized committee of the League for Mental Health, she has been a president of Psychopharmacological section of PS SLS twice, she is a member of a Slovak Psychotherapeutic Association, European College of Neuropsychiatry, the Czech Neuropsychopharmacological Association, Hungarian Psychiatric Association, International Psychogeriatric Association and is a member of the International Association for Women’s Mental Health (IAWMH) for Central and East Europe.
She is the main organizer and co- organizer of many scientific and specialized events not only in Slovakia but also abroad. Within her specialization, she is an author and co- author of many articles, textbooks and chapter in monographies; she is the author and co- author of hundreds of lectures in Slovakia and abroad. But as she says, first of all- she is a psychiatrist.  
Photo report
Across Croatia
The Family Ethnographical Museum Trstenjak in Marofa.
Róbert Matejovic
Photo: the author
It is said that everyone knows Stanko Trstenkaj, his beautiful garden, home-made products and mainly the family ethnographical museum in the Upper Medzimurje (north) rimmed by the river Mura and by the Croatian- Slovenian border. I also heard of him when I recently visited the village of Sveti Martin na Muri and the only wooden floating mill on the river Mura (see Dimenzie no.4/2011), which are situated near the border. My tourist guides from the Tourist Association of Medzimurje Region and Sveti Martin na Muri were telling me about him just before lunch when we were walking along the Miller’s Path and I really felt like having home-made cheese and home- made cakes.
We visited Stanko Trstenjak in his native village of Marof where we counted 43 family houses only. Not even a hundred inhabitants, most of them are farmers and people who grow vegetables whose lives are closely connected with soil. Like Stanko Trstenjak, they also used to go to work in Slovenia and neighbouring Lendava, the first town across the border as they were not Croatians and Slovenians but citizens of Tito´s Yugoslavia.
From a chef to a passionate ethnographer
“ Welcome and have some sponge cake made of home eggs and walnuts,” he told me as we greeted each other and sat down in his living room, It was not modern at all, its design, furniture, decorations reminded of a living standard and the era 810 or 100 years ago. After a few seconds, the smell of duvets and a room took me back to Slovakia, to Trenčianske Bohuslavice near Bošáca, to the cottage of my grandparents whom I used to visit and where I used to spend summer holidays and enjoy atmosphere of country life. Partially Croatian as this village was inhabited by Croatian colonists… When I took a closer look at Stanko Trstenjak´s house, my childhood memories became even more intensive.
My host Stanko used to work as a professional chef. Nowadays, he deals with gardening, ecological growing of vegetables and fruit, keeping poultry, production of home- made pasta from wheat flour, cheese Turoš made of fresh cow milk and mainly ethnography, his greatest love. For over 30 years, he has been collecting authentic folk clothes and costumes, pictures (goblins), various sacral objects, kitchen and farmer’s tools, antiques, clocks and furniture to, as he says, to protect the history and culture of the citizens of Medzimurje. “I worked as a chef for a few years and I cooked at many wedding in Medzimurje region. When I found out that people had many old things just thrown in somewhere in the cellar or in the kitchen so I asked them to sell or give away those things. I jut wanted to preserve them so I continuously carried them into my house which I changed into a family ethnographical museum.”
Original presentation of Medzimurje
At present, his house offers original presentation of history of the Medzimurje region. Every room, every corner, from the entrance to the roof, on the veranda, in the attic, in the cellar or in the former stable is like a part of history of Medzimurje- culture, traditions, rituals, wisdom and knowledge but also suffering that prove their perseverance and endurance.
His most precious collection contains various kinds of linen and woven folk costumes, work clothes and smart costumes, trousers, bed sheets, duvets, pillows, table cloths, embroidery and decorative cloths… He has not counted them all; however, he says there are many of them. He also collected other unique objects- pottery pots, dishes, cutlery, cups, tools for linen and hemp processing, loom machines, old furniture, old sacral pictures, clocks, carriages, sledges for transport of wood and fertilizers, tools used for work in the fields, old bicycles and historical maps, for example the map of original Slovenia which included Corutania that nowadays, belongs to Austria. Stanko can answer our every question and tell us a story about each object in his museum. He can also show us which flowers, trees, vegetables and crops he grows, what he produces, which fruit he dries, which herbs he uses to produce home made tea. He cooks and bakes according to old and traditional Medzimurje recipes. And he is not ashamed of it. He sells as much as he can in the market in Murski Središč or to people who are ken on his products. Other villagers work and think like him. It is difficult to imagine country tourism in Croatia without them. And it is the same in other villages, I have never and nowhere seen people just sitting in pubs and spending the money gambling as many people do, for example, in Slovakia.             
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Two Questions
Project POL - LOC
Its main goal is to build a centre of study and research in the field of local politics in Košice.
Photo: Dimenzie
The Economic Faculty of the Technical University in Košice is preparing an important international educational event- the first summer school called Policy Making and Politics at the Local Level: V4 countries and other CEE countries in comparative perspective. It will be held from June 19 to July 3, 2011. Students and young university pedagogues from 16 countries will take part in it. The main coordinator of the project as well as the director of the summer school is PhDr. Daniel Klimovský, PhD, a lecturer operating at the Department of Regional Sciences and Management at the Economic Faculty of the Technical University.
Mr Klinovský, what are the philosophy and primary goals of this project?
Thanks to the cooperation with prof. Georg Kamphausen (Universität Bayreuth, Germany) I had been given an opportunity to visit Germany for a few times and get to know the topic of local politics which belongs to the traditional areas of studying and research in German academic conditions. Following research stay there at university during my PhD study just confirmed that it is an extraordinary and interesting field which, however, is not paid so much attention in Slovak conditions. Naturally, this state is tightly connected with social and political development before the year 1989 and the need to catch up with research and study activities in some “important” social and political areas over the past twenty years.
Project POL- LOC (Policy Making and Politics at the Local Level) is predominantly an educational project. Its main aim is to develop traditions of studying regional policy and related issues in Košice.
For the cities that are proud of their university traditions, it is interesting that they represent educational and research top only in a few areas. If we view Slovak conditions closely, we cannot identify such a centre. I perceive this area as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Košice will not become such a centre overnight. On the contrary, it requires a long-term and systematic approach. And projects such as Project POL- LOC can exactly serve this purpose. In a short time, we will attract outstanding lecturers to come to Košice, meanwhile, within the summer school; we will create conditions for exchange of experience and knowledge among students and young teachers.
What is essential is the fact that the summer school will not be a kind of an individual approach. On the contrary, at the moment we are already preparing another two years which should be organized in the same form. Their purpose will be to start up sensible cooperation with foreign subjects and thus initiate academic tradition in the study of local policy. Meanwhile, an internationally accepted textbook is being prepared at the moment, video records of key lecturers´ lectures will be available too, an electronic library is being prepared as well, etc.
Who do you cooperate with on this project? Who will give lectures within this summer school?
This project connects partners’ university workplaces from 13 countries (the Czech Republic, Estonia, Croatia, Macedonia, Hungary, Moldavia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia and Ukraine). Universities from Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Sweden and Italy have already shown their interest, too. Out of donors, I can mention, for example, The Central European Initiative, Program Erasmus (Intensive Programs), the Council of Europe, the International Vysegrad Fund, The Tatra Banka Foundation, Slovenská Sporiteľňa Foundation, The Foundation of St. Archangel Michael, the Foundation Centre of local development in Lublina, Friedrich- Ebert- Stiftung Bratislava, the City of Košice and the Slovak Agency for Tourism.
The project is also supported by several scientific institutions, for example NISPAcee- Network of Institutes and School of Public Administration in Central and Eastern Europe, RSA – Regional Studies Association, The Company for Regional science and politics (Spoločnosť pre regionálnu vedu a politiku), which is the member of ERSA – European Regional Science Association, and Program SIGMA coordinated by OECD. The event is organized under the auspices of the Mayor of Košice and the Dean of the Faculty of Economics, Technical University of Košice.
Reputable specialists in the field wit rich experience with work with students will give lectures. Key lectures will be given by seven professors (from Great Britain, Slovakia, Sweden, Hungary and Serbia) and three readers. What is interesting is the fact that participant will be fully responsible for the attempt to provide interdisciplinary program. The program will be enriched by practical examples and experience as people like plenipotentiary of the SR for the regional self- administration and integrated management of povodie and country, representatives of the Association of towns and villages in Slovakia and the Sdružení měst a obcí České republiky, a representative of ETP- Slovakia, a representative of Transparency International Slovakia, the representative of the Agency for Support of the Regional Development in Košice and representatives of the project Košice 2013- the European Capital City of Culture. You will find more information about the project and project activities on
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